A Dissertation

Presented to

The Faculty of the Ambassador College

Graduate School of Education

In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree

Doctor of Philosophy


Herman L. Hoeh


1966, 1969 Edition





Chapter I

Early History of Germany

Antiquity of the German Reich

Germans Shape World Affairs

The Answer Found

Did the Assyrians Invade Europe?

What Did Assyrians Look Like?

Why Germans Call Themselves "Deutschen"

What Language Did They Speak?

Semitic by Race, Not Language

Chapter II

The Ancient Kings of the Germans

The Early Settlers of Europe

Kings of Ancient Germany

Chapter III

Abraham in Early European History

Europe's Early History Suppressed

Abraham in the Austrian Chronicle

Chapter IV

Jews Gain Power in Danube Civilization

Jewish Kings from Austrian Chronicle

End of Jewish Predominance

Chapter V

The Conquests of Odin and Danish History

What the History of Denmark Reveals

The Genealogy of Dan I

"Hu the Mighty"

The Kings of Denmark

Denmark Enters Roman History

Christianity Introduced on the Throne

Chapter VI

Scotland -- Key to History of New World

What Historians Claim

First Major Settlement

Line of Judah in Scotland

Earliest History of Scotland

Early Line of Scottish Kings

Kings of Cruithne Continued


Chapter VII

They Crossed the Atlantic

The Little Ice Age

Whites Did Not Become Indians

American Indian Tradition

Enter Votan

Early Time of Migration

Chronology of Mexico

The History of Toltecs at Tullan

The City-State of Culhaucan

The Chichimecs at Texcoco

The Aztecs

Chapter VIII

The History of Spain

Only Recently Suppressed

Earliest Kings over the Spanish

Invasion from Africa

Abraham's Children

Chaos in Spain

Time of the Sea Powers

Chapter IX

Italy, Home of Pagan Religion

Italy in the Ancient World

What Italian History Reveals

The History of Etruria

The History of the Latins

Chapter X

The Story of the Peruvian Indians

Modern Scholarship Discarded the Facts

What Archaeologists Found

Illustration from Burma

The Inca Rulers

Chapter XI

Ancient Persia and Turkestan

Early Kings of Persia

The Second Race

The First Race

Turkestan, Turks and Mongols

Ogus Khan

The History of Armenia

Chapter XII

Trojan Migration to France

Trojan Kings of Isauria

Trojan Kings of Sicambria and Pannonia

Kings of Agrippina

Princes of Brabant

Dukes of Brabant

Kings of Frisia

Dukes of Frisia

Second Group of Kings of Frisia

Trojan Kings of the Belgians

Kings of the Celts in Gaul

Chapter XII A

Further Migrations to France

Sicambrian Kings

The Kings of the Franks

Dukes of the East Franks

The Hapsburgs Enter

The Dukes of Gaul

Kings of France

In Retrospect

Chapter XIII

History of Sweden and the Saxons

The Record Speaks

Renewed Migration

Dynasty of Yngling

Dynasty of Stenkil

Saxon History

Chapter XIV

The History of Arabia

Who Were the First Arabs?

The Jorhamites of Hejaz

The Kingdom of Yemen

Arabia's Indian-Ocean Neighbors

Chapter XV

The Miracle of the Red Sea

Do Miracles Happen Today?

Background of the Story

Where Is Goshen?

The Land of Rameses

Goshen During the Plagues

The Night of the Exodus

Israel Built Pyramids

What Road Did Israel Take?

Where Are These Places?

Crossing the Red Sea

Egypt Left Desolate

Egypt's Historians Admit What Happened

Chapter XVI

Journey to Petra

After Mount Sinai -- Where?

What Does "Kadesh" Mean?

Located in Mount Seir!

Israel Whipped in Seir

Yet Another Proof!

Where Was the "Wilderness of Wandering"?

Encampments Listed in Order

Bene-Jaakan is Kadesh!

The Return to Kadesh

"Sela" Another Name for Petra

Where Did Aaron Die?

Where Was the King's Highway?

Journey Northward in the Arabah

Petra Occupied by Israel

Chapter XVII

Where Did the Twelve Apostles Go?

Jesus' Commission Tells

"House of Israel" Identified

What New Testament Reveals

Three Missing Words

Wars Reveal Where

To Whom Did Peter Write?

Remnant of Ten Tribes on Shores of Black Sea

What Greek Historians Report

Simon Peter in Britain!

And Andrew His Brother

And the Other Apostles?

And Ireland Too!

Paul in Britain, Too?

On the Shores of the Caspian Sea

Where Did Matthew Go?

Chapter XVIII

Since the First Man

Scientific Confusion

Why Hypotheses?

Uncovering the Facts

How Geologists Think

Discarding the Facts

Facts of Geology

Confirmation of Genesis One

The World of Adam

The Sin of Cain and Geology

Early Post-Flood World

Appendix A

The Enigma of Dynasty I and II of Kish Resolved

Appendix B

Ethiopian King List

Agdazyan Dynasty

Dynasty of Menelik I

The Christian Sovereigns

Dynasty of Atse

Sovereigns Issued from Zagwe

A Jewish Dynasty

House of Gondar

Tribe of Ori

Line of Ham

Appendix C

Kashmir -- Chronology from the Rajatarangini

Gonandiya Dynasty

Usurping Dynasty

Restored Gonandiya Dynasty

Karkota Dynasty

The Dynasty of Utpala

First Lohara Dynasty

Second Lohara Dynasty




The first volume of the COMPENDIUM OF WORLD HISTORY exposed the

radical new interpretation of history now taught on all levels of

modern education. It revealed the fallacy of the "historical method."

It explained WHY God is left out of history.

Volume I restored the history of ancient Egypt, of Assyria and

Babylonia, of Media and India, of Greece, Ireland and Britain. This

volume completes that restoration. For the first time, in this second

volume, the early history of Europe will be made plain. Its connection

with the New World, with American Indian civilization, with the early

Biblical heroes is an astounding revelation.




The time has come to reveal the true history of Europe.

The Germans for centuries have dominated the heartland of Western

Europe. Because of the geographic position Germany's transportation

lines constitute the vital arteries of the continent. Without the

beating of the German heart, Europe would lose its economic and

political prominence in world affairs.

Ancient Roman writers would have us believe that the Germans in

the Roman heyday were mere barbarians, an insignificant people roaming

the forests of northern Europe. Was this Roman report the whole truth?

Were the ancient Roman writers keeping back from their people the facts

of German history?

Rome conquered Spain, Gaul, Southern Britain, all North Africa to

the Sahara, Illyria, Greece, Asia to the Euphrates. But Rome had to

draw its boundary in the north along the Rhine. Why? Why was Rome not

able to subdue all Germany? Why, after centuries of bloodshed, did Rome

finally succumb to the hammer blows of the Germanic Goths and Vandals?

It is high time we were told the true history of early Germany.

The origin of the German people in Europe is rooted in patriarchal

times. The history of early Germany, suppressed by the Romans, was

revived briefly in the German-dominated Middle Ages. But before the

close of the seventeenth century not even the Germans remembered their

past. It had been stamped out in the name of education and religion.

But not all was lost. From early documents and local traditions it

is still possible to recover what has, in recent centuries, been buried

under the rubble of modern educational superstition. The Germans

themselves are in great part responsible for this condition. They

fostered modern historical concepts. They have tried to hide their past

even from themselves -- just as they did at the close of the Hitler

era. If the Germans admitted to themselves and the world who they

really are, all the world would recognize in Imperial Germany the

reconstituted Assyrian Empire -- once the terror of all the civilized




Germany has set herself up as the bulwark of European

civilization. Germany for centuries has claimed to stand as the wall of

defense against the barbarism of Asia.

The German Reich long endured as the oldest political institution

in Continental Europe. The German people called their Reich the Holy

Roman Empire. It bore rule over Europe for a thousand years. This "Holy

Roman Empire of the German People" was officially designated by the

Church in the Middle Ages as "The Kingdom of God" on earth. Its

citizens, the Germans, felt themselves true Romans and bearers of the

Christian Reich or kingdom. They were therefore the chosen people of

the Christian era, entrusted with a world-mission to be the protectors

of Christianity.

German leaders and philosophers have never forgotten this notion

of the Middle Ages that the German, in place of the Jew, has a special

mission from God.

This strange concept, which lies behind modern political thinking

in Germany, is plainly stated in the German work "Die Trag"die des

Heiligen Reiches" -- in English, "The Tragedy of the Holy Roman

Empire." It is by Friedrich Heer. It is a remarkable volume. It lays

bare the reason for the secret motives of the German to dominate Europe

-- and the world.



The story of the ancestry of the German people, and their role in

prophecy, is one of the strangest stories ever written. It is gripping

with interest, amazing -- yes, astounding!

"The History of Germany," writes Bayard Taylor, "is not the

history of a nation, but of a race ... Thus, even before the fall of

the Roman Empire, it becomes the main trunk out of which branch

histories of nearly all European nations, and ... the connecting link

between ancient and modern history. The records of no other race throw

so much light upon the development of all civilized lands during a

period of fifteen hundred years" ("History of Germany", page iii).

Germany has contributed more military leaders than any other

nation in history. Its governments have, in the past, claimed the right

to rule the "Christian world." The German State, from its beginning,

has nearly always been a confederation of states -- often an empire of

German ruling over non-German. It is the German people who, more than

once, have believed themselves to be the "Herrenvolk" -- the Master


The German people number over one hundred million throughout the

world today. They are composed of numerous small tribes. Nations,

remember, are families grown big. Take Israel as an example. The nation

Israel descended from one man, Jacob (who was renamed Israel upon his

conversion -- Genesis 35:9-10). But Israel had 12 sons. His family

therefore was divided into 12 tribes. One reads in the Bible about "the

12 tribes of Israel" -- Judah, Dan, Ephraim, Levi, etc. (Genesis


The same is true of the German people. of all these tribes,

perhaps the most famous name to Americans is that of the Hessians. The

British hired numerous Hessians in their effort to put down the

American Revolution which began in 1776. The Hessians were known to

Roman historians by the tribal name "Hatti." Other Germans bore the

names "Alemani" "Suabi," and "Quadi," the "Casuri." The Romans called

them collectively Germani, meaning "War-men" (from the "Encyclopedia

Britannica", article, "Germany").

But from where did all these Germanic people come?

Here is the answer of history: "There can be no doubt that they

Black and Caspian seas," states "Smith's Classical Dictionary",

article, "Germania," p. 361. Ancient historical records confirm this


The Germans can be traced in historical records to the regions

surrounding the Black and Caspian seas, which border on the ancient

Biblical Mesopotamia. This is the region where civilization commenced

and from where the patriarchs came!



Ancient German tradition claims that their oldest city, Trier, was

founded by Trever or Trebeta, a son of Ninus, king of Assyria.

"The inhabitants of Trier maintain that their city is the oldest

in all Europe," writes Josef K. L. Bihl in his textbook "In deutschen

Landen", page 69. "Trier was founded," he continues, "by Trebeta, a son

of the famous Assyrian King Ninus. In fact, one finds ... in Trier the

inscription reading, 'Trier existed for 1300 years before Rome was

rebuilt.' "

Ninus, according to Roman, Greek and Persian records, was the

first ruler who began the systematic conquest of the ancient world

after the death of Nimrod. He established the Assyrian Empire as the

chief power over Eastern Europe and Southwest Asia, reported Diodorus

of Sicily in his History.

But how is it possible that the oldest German city, Trier, founded

over 2000 years before the birth of Christ, should be built by a son of

Ninus, the renowned King of ancient Assyria? What connection have the

Germans with Assyria?

Jerome, who lived at the time when the Indo-Germanic tribes were

invading Europe, provides this startling answer: "For 'Assur (the

Assyrian) also is joined with them' " (Letter 123, sec. 16, "Nicene and

Post-Nicene Fathers"; quote is from Psalm 83:8).



Yes! Jerome said so! But how did he know?

He saw them! He was an eyewitness to their migrations from

Mesopotamia and the shores of the Black and Caspian seas!

Now consider what Sylax, the author of the "Periplus," who lived

about 550 B.C., writes of the southern shores of the Black Sea: "The

coast of the Black Sea ... is called Assyria" (from page 261 of Perrot

and Chipiez's "History of Art in Sardinia, Judaea, Syria and Asia

Minor", Vol. II.) From there the Assyrians moved north.

Only 300 years before Jerome, the Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder

declared the "Assyriani" -- the Assyrians -- were dwelling north of the

Black Sea ("Natural History", IV, 12, page 183). But the Assyrians did

not remain there. They are not there today. of course not -- they

migrated into Central Europe -- where the Germans live today!



What did the ancient Assyrians look like? Here is the answer: "In

the Zagros hills and across the plain to the Tigris, there lived a ...

fair-haired ... people akin to the Guti (the Goths) who ... remained in

what was afterwards Assyria, the neighbour land to Akkad" (page 5 of

"The Sumerians", by C. Leonard Woolley).

When the ancient Greek writers wanted to distinguish the Assyrians

and their Hebrew captives from the Arameans or Syrians, the Greeks

often called both Assyrians and their Hebrew captives "Leucosyri" --

meaning "whites" or "blonds" as distinct from the very brunette Syrians

who still live in Mesopotamia.



The Germans do not call themselves "German." They refer to

themselves as Deutschen, and to their country as Deutschland.

When the Assyrians or Germans appeared in Europe, they claimed

Tuitsch as their ancestor! That is where the name "Deutsch" comes from!

"Tuysco, the most ancient and peculiar god of all the Germans ...

of this Tuisco, the first and chiefest man of many among the Germans,

and after whom they do call themselves Tuytshen, that is, duytshes or

duytsh people, I have already spoken." So writes Verstegan in his 1605

publication entitled "Restitution of Decayed Intelligence: in


Whenever a German calls himself Deutsch, he is therefore saying he

is a descendant of Tuitsch (Tuisco or Tuisto in Latin). And when he

terms his country Deutschland, he is saying his land is Tuitsch's land.

Who this Tuitsch is will be made plain in Chapter II.



European scholars have thoroughly studied the language of the land

of Hatti -- the ancestors of the Hessians. It is an Indo-Germanic

tongue -- numerous words of which were akin to Old High German. So many

similarities were found that Edgar Sturtevant had to declare: "To me it

seems incredible that so remarkable a situation developed in two

languages independently. I feel compelled to trace the Germanic ... to

a common origin" with the language of Hatti -- common tongue of the

Assyrians in Asia Minor (from "A Comparative Grammar", page 240).

Scholars admit that for centuries the language of the people who

inhabited Assyria was not merely Semitic. Semitic was the late literary

language of Assyria -- the language of scholars, the language of

international commerce. Modern historians and archaeologists assume

that the common tongue of all Assyrian people was Semitic. They have no

proof. So noted an Assyriologist as Sydney Smith admitted "... that the

documents from Asia Minor and from east of Tigris are couched in

Semitic dialects spoken by men unable to pronounce all the Semitic

consonants ..." (p. xi, from "Early History of Assyria to 1000 B.C.").

The same circumstance occurred during the Middle Ages all over

Europe. The language of almost all European scholars -- and even their

names -- until the time of the Protestant Reformation was Latin -- but

Latin was not the common tongue of the people! Because most of the

literature of Germany was in Latin during the Middle Ages does not

prove that the common people spoke Latin.



Asshur was a son of Shem. But after the tower of Babel, when the

languages of the world were confused (Genesis 11), most Assyrians no

longer spoke a Semitic tongue, but rather Indo-Germanic and related

tongues! The Germans, therefore, are Semitic by race, but not by


In the days of Abraham, the Germans or Assyrians formed a great

confederation of states or tribes, speaking several different languages

(Josephus' "Antiquities of the Jews", book I, ch. 9). One king of the

Assyrians -- already discussed -- was "Tidal, king of nations" (Genesis

14:1). The name Tidal is Indo-Germanic, not Semitic.

Most scholars have never been conscious of the fact that the use

of the Semitic language in Assyria was due to the rising influence of

the Aramaic people (Genesis 10:22) in Mesopotamia and certain of the

sons of Abraham ("Antiquities", book I, ch. XV, sect. 1). So prominent

did they become that Mesopotamia is called "Padan-Aram" -- the plain of

Aram -- in the Bible (Genesis 28:22).




The settlement of the Assyrians and related peoples in early

Europe is summarized by several writers in the early Middle Ages. The

list of the early kings presented here is from the "Bayerische Chronik"

and "Deutsche Chronik" by Johannes Turmair, Abensberg, 1526.

The traditional events assigned to each ancient German ruler are

confirmed by both archaeological evidence and the fragmentary comments

of classical historians.

The "Bayerische Chronik" is very important for the history of

Central Europe. It proves that German history was correctly preserved

in song and poetry and in contemporary written records down to Roman

times. It further proves that the length of time from the Flood to

Roman times was accurately preserved except for an overlooked 24 years.

This period was the 24 years from Abram's year 75 to his year 99. The

later chroniclers, who placed in parallel German and Hebrew history,

universally reckoned the 430 years from the Covenant that was confirmed

with Abraham to Sinai as beginning when Abram was 75 years old, instead

of 99. They therefore placed the Flood 24 years too late in history.

The German chronicles that were the basis of Turmair's work placed

the Flood 131 years before the coming of the German patriarch Tuisto

into Europe. They should have reckoned 131 plus 24 -- that is, 155

years. With this one exception, all dates from Tuisto down to the

burning of Rome in 390 B.C. need no correction. All that is necessary

is to add the separate lengths of reign. There are no missing lengths

of reign.

German history commences with an extensive settlement of farmers

in Europe from the Don River to the Rhine. The date of this migration

into Europe from Mesopotamia and the Near East is placed at 2214 B.C.

by German history -- just 155 years after the Flood and 40 years after

the Tower of Babel.



The real beginnings of Assyrian history were not presented in

Volume I. They are restored here. One account begins with the reign of

Nimrod in 2194 -- after the 60-year reign of Cush. Cush was the first

Belus -- the word means "lord" -- who bore rule after the Flood.

Early Rulers of Assyria

and Babylon Lengths of Reign Dates

Saturn: the Nimrod of Scripture, 56 2194-2138

known also as Ninus I.

Belus: great lord of Assyria 55 2138-2083

-- a title of Shem as lord

over all his family. The

title was later taken by Asshur.

Ninus II: conquered the 52 2100-2048

Middle East in 17 years

(2100-2083), while his

father was recognized as

supreme ruler, (see

Diodorus Siculus).

Ninus is the name of

Asshur used by classical


Semiramis or Ishtar 42 2048-2006

Ninyas: called Zames 38 2006-1968

(see Vol. 1 for history).



The "Bavarian Chronicle" records in detail the earliest settlers

of Europe after the Deluge. Their encampments and habitations have been

recovered by archaeological research and are labeled the "Neolithic"

migrations that traversed the Danube and adjoining valleys.

Shem or Tuitsch came into Europe with members of his family, as

well as with certain of the sons of Japheth and two of the sons of Ham

who were of the white stock. From these have descended most of the

present-day nations of Europe. The descendants of Shem include many

sons of Joktan, son of Heber, and a number of the sons of Mash, son of

Aram. The Biblical names (Genesis 10) of the grandsons and

great-grandsons of Shem are clearly preserved in most instances by the

"Chronicle". In the following chart, together with the names of the

patriarchal settlers, appear either the areas settled, the tribes which

sprang from them, or their Biblical names. An historical or classical

map should be consulted for location of geographic names. In later

times the descendants of these early heroes migrated west, south, north

and east under population pressure.

Dukes settled by Shem

in Europe Identity, or Area settled

1. Sarmata, son of settled Sarmatia; is the

Joktan Hazarmaveth of Gen. 10:26;

colonized south Arabia;

a son Tanaus gave his name

to the river Tanais, now

called the Don.

2. Dacus, son of Mash, settled Dacia, later also

grandson of Aram colonized in Denmark

3. Geta, another son from whom came certain of

of Mash (included in the Getae of Roman history

Anderson's "Royal

Genealogies", but

not in "Bavarian


4. Gotha Gether from whom came the Goths

(v .23)

5. Tibiscus, late settled on the river

Latin spelling of Theiss or Tibiscus;

Tiobo, an Italian descendants migrated into

spelling of Jobab Germany (see "Encyclopedia

(Gen. 10:29) Britannica", article


6. Moesa, Mash settled Mysia and Moesia

(Gen. 10:23)

7. Phrygus, or Brigus, settled in Phrygia and

son of Mash (Gen. Europe


8. Thynus, son of Mash settled Bithynia in Asia


9. Dalmata, Almodad settled Dalmatia on Adriatic

(v. 26)

10. Jader, Jerah (v .26), founded the port called

his descendants also Jaderia Colonia in Illyria

settled in Arabia

11. Albanus or Albion, for whom Albania is named,

Abimael (v. 28) and also Albion or Britain;

his descendants early

migrated to the Isle of


12. Sabus or Sau, Sheba settled on the river Save;

(v. 28) migrated to Italy as


13. Pannus or Benno, settled Pannonia

son of Mash

14. Sala or Salon built the town Sala; gave

Shelah (v. 24) his name to river Sal

15. Azalus or Aezel, ancestor of the Azali;

Uzal (v. 27) also settled in Aezeland

in Pannonia

16. Hister, the Joktan settled Istria; Hister

of the Bible (Gen. means same in Indo-European

10:25) tongues that Joktan does

in Hebrew -- water course

(Rawlinson, "Ancient


17. Adulas or Adler, anciently dwelt on Upper

Hadoram (v. 27); Rhine; his son Than gave

colonized in Arabia his name to the river

Thonau, now called the


18. Dicla, Diklah thought to have dwelt on

(v. 27) Upper Rhine; his

descendants later migrated

to Gedrosia in Persia

l9. Obalus or Elb, from him the river Elbe

Obal (v. 28) takes its name

20. Epirus Ophir colonized Asia from Epirus

(v. 29)

21. Eber built Ebersau -- the

Eburodunum of Ptolemy's


22. Hoeril, Havilah gave his name to river

(Gen. 10:29) Havel or Havila (Jacobus

Schatz: "Atlas Homannianus

Illustratus", p. 121); from

him descended the Heruli

The white descendants of the following patriarchs also colonized

parts of Europe:

23. Arcadius, father of the settled Arcadia in Greece

Arkites (Gen. 10:17)

24. Emathius, father of settled Emathia in Macedonia

Hamathites (Gen. 10:18)

25. Tiras, son of colonized Thrace


26. Moska, Meshech -- colonized east of the

son of Japheth Carpathians

27. Javan, son of Hebrew name for Greece is

Japheth Javan

28. Thubal, son of Josephus records that

Japheth certain of his children

settled Spain

29. Gomer, son of dwelt for a time in Italy


30. Asch, Ashkenaz -- his descencants mixed with

son of Gomer the Goths -- whence Jews

who settled in Central

Europe acquired name of


31. Reif or Rus, settled in Scythia and

Riphath -- son of White Russia


32. Tagus, Togarmah -- dwelt for a time in Southern

son of Gomer Europe



Early Kings of German Lengths of Reign Dates

1. Tuitsch or Tuisto 176 2214-2038

(236) (2214-1978)

Chief of thirty-two dukes. Noah gave him all the land between the

Don River and the Rhine or what was called Grossgermania. This is the

beginning of the "neolithic" settlement of Europe. Tuitsch is,

according to all ancient German commentaries and chronicles, a son of

Noah. But which son? Noah adopted Tuitsch's children as his own. The

ancient Germans understood the name Tuitsch to be the title "Teacher."

He was therefore the great patriarch of his family who taught the

divine will to his children.

Tuitsch is the father of Mannus (who is the Assyrian Ninus). The

son of Mannus, Trebeta, is the same man who is called the son of Ninus

in classical writers. The son of Mannus or Ninus -- Trebeta -- built

Trier, the first town of Germany. Since the Bible calls this Ninus (who

built Nineveh), Asshur, Tuitsch is therefore Shem!

Tuitsch (Shem) left Europe for Egypt in 2038. His appearance in

Egyptian chronological records of Dynasty I dates his arrival and

government in 2037. From Armenia Tuitsch left 155 years after the Flood

(131 plus 24) -- see the comments at the beginning of this chapter.

With him were twenty-two descendants plus eight from Japheth and two

from Ham. Tuitsch made his headquarters at Deutz (today Koeln-Deutz).

The country is called Deutschland after him -- that is, the land of the

great Patriarch or Teacher, Shem. In the 25th year of his reign

(2190-2189) Tuitsch held a state assembly, divided lands among his

descendants and ordained laws. He also brought more colonies from



2. Mannus or Mann 72 1978-1906

(66) (1978-1912)

For the last 60 years of Tuitsch's or Shem's reign in Germany, he

governed his family from Egypt and Italy. It was not until 1978 that

Mannus assumed the government over Western Europe, succeeding his

father Tuitsch. At the beginning of his reign he sends out colonies to

France and Asia Minor. His son Herman establishes the kingdoms of

Phrygia, Mysia and Bithynia in Mannus' 34th year (1945-1944). Another

son Trieber or Trebeta, built Trier. Nerus, another son, settled in the

Netherlands. This Mannus is the Assyrian Ninus and is Asshur, son of

Shem. Asshur means "strength" in Hebrew and has the same sense as

Mannus -- masculinity -- in German.


3. Eingeb or Ingaevon 36 1906-1870

(40) (1912-1872)

This son of Mannus or Ninus -- Asshur -- was the German Mercury.

His wife Freia was the German Venus. He instituted the observance of

Weinnachten of December 24. Eingeb is responsible for settling Germans

on the North Sea from Denmark to Dunkirk. He sent his general Brigus

from the Danube valley to secure Spain against the African Amazons

(female warriors). Myrein, queen of the African Amazons advanced up the

Danube but was defeated and slain by Eingeb's generals Seiphyl and



4. Ausstaeb or Istaevon 50 1870-1820

(52) (1872-1820)

Son of Eingeb, Ausstaeb was the German Mars. From him are

descended the Rheinlanders. In his days a great drought devastated



5. Herman 63 1820-1757

Son of Ausstaeb. He taught the philosophy that war and to die in

battle is most pleasing to God. He introduced the arts of warmaking to

the Germans. The Druids began to flourish in Germany. Herman settled

the heart of Germany, whose people were called Hermanduri or Hermiones

after him.


6. Mers 46 1757-1711

Son of Herman. The city of Merseburg is named after him. The

Dithmarsii descended from him. Oryz, the Egyptian god-king Osiris, came

with his wife Eisen up the Danube valley to Mers. They left Germany and

went to Italy on their way back to Egypt. Cultural development of

Germany through contact with Egypt in days of Joseph -- beer making,

agriculture, forging and medicine were brought to Germany.


7. Gampar 44 1711-1667

Son of Mers. He was the inventor of beer brewing. His daughter

Araxa became one of the wives of Libys (the Egyptian and Spanish

Hercules), the son of Oryz, and gave birth to Tuscus, Schyth,

Agatyrsus, Peucinger and Gutho.


8. Schwab 46 1667-1621

Son of Gampar. He gave his name to Schwaben. In his reign Eisen

came to Germany and taught the people various crafts.


9. Wandler 41 1621-1580

Son of Schwab. Ancestor of the German Wenden or Vandals, who were

first known at the Weser, next in the countries north of the Elbe;

afterwards, a colony went into Spain, then into Africa where they

restored the Roman Empire; their kingdom was demolished by General

Belisarius. The cities of Luebeck, Rostoch, Dantzig, and others are the

relics of those first Vandals who did not migrate to North Africa.

These German Vandals are different from the Wends called Slavi,

Slavonians, Poles, Bohemians who settled in the ancient lands of the



10. Deuto 27 1580-1553

Son of Wandler, gave his name to the Teutones. He led a campaign

into France and built there the cities of Vannes, Sens, Santgenge and

Toulouse. He was deified as the German Mercury, as Eingeb had

previously been.


11. Alman (Allmann or Altman) 64 1553-1489

Son of Deuto, was the German Hercules. Famous for use of trained

lions in war. Bore a lion in his shield. Bavarians, who descended from

him, still use a lion on their coat of arms. He had many sons. Norein

received Noricum (in Bavaria today). Norein was the father of part of

the Bavarians. Haun was the father of the German Huns and lived with

his brothers Glan and Schyter. Helvos was the father of the Helvetti in

Switzerland. Baier ruled Bavaria. Mied and Math were the ancestors of

the Mediomatrices in Alsace. Theur went to foreign lands.


12. Baier 60 1489-1429

Son of Alman. He sent a great army of Germans and Wends from

Germany, Denmark and Gothland to the Balkans. One group, the Goths

under Gebreich and Vilmer, settled on the river Theissa and lived there

as the Getae till the time of Valentinian. Another group, including the

German Amazons, proceeded down the Danube valley to the Black Sea and

on through the Crimea and the Palus Maeotis to Armenia and Cappadocia

and the Taurus mountains. Here they were known as the Cimmerians. Baier

was also known as Bojus of Bavaria since he was the ancestor of many

Bavari. He built Prague.


13. Ingram or Ingramus 52 1429-1377

Son of Baier. He sent many German colonists to Asia Minor.

Tanhauser, king of the Germans in Asia Minor, and his priestess

Schmirein, led a conquering army through Syria as far as Egypt. Built

Hermenia, afterwards called Reginoberg (Ratisbon).


14. Adalger or Adelger 49 1377-1328

Son of Ingram. German Amazons were again famous in his time under

Queens Lautpotis and Martpeis. They crossed through Asia Minor to

Lycia, but were defeated.


15. Larein 51 1328-1277

Son of Adalger. This is the Laertes of Trojan fame, mentioned by

the Roman historian Tacitus. During his rule an army set out from

Germany and went via Poland and Ruthenia to the Danube valley. Here it

was joined by Germans who had come to the area some 150 years earlier,

and the combined forces fell into Asia Minor under their leader Mader

and their queen Aloph. They passed through Phrygia and settled in



16. Ylsing or Ulsing 53 1277-1224

Son of Larein. This is the Trojan Ulysses of Tacitus. He is also

the Greek Odysseus who sailed out to the Atlantic and up to the Rhine.

Built Emmerick on the Main. During his reign the Germans under Galter

again invaded Asia Minor and settled on the banks of the river

Sangarius. Priam of Troy tried in vain to expel them, finally made a

treaty, and they later helped him against the Greeks.


17. Brenner or Breno 38 1224-1186

Son of Ylsing, in whose reign Prichs ruled the Germans on the

Black Sea and the women under queen Themyschyr conquered Bithynia,

Paphlagonia and Cappadocia.


18. Heccar (Hykar or Highter) 31 1186-1155

Son of Brenner. He is the famous Hector of the First Trojan War.

He was of great help to Priam. Teutschram, king of the Germans of

Transylvania and son-in-law of Priam also sent help.


19. Frank (Francus or Franco) 41 1155-1114

Son of Heccar. From him descended the German Franks or

Franconians. In his days Amar, queen of the German Amazons, burned the

temple in Ephesus.


20. Wolfheim Siclinger 58 1114-1056

Son of Frank. He sent another great migration of settlers from

Germany to the Black Sea.


21. Kels, Gal and Hillyr 50 1056-1006

Sons of Wolfheim. They divided their father's realm after his

death. Hillyr received Illyria, Gal received Gaul and Kels received

Germany. Hillyr had three daughters and six sons, all of whom settled

in the regions of the Balkans, Thrace and Greece.


22. Alber 60 1006-946

Son of Gal, ruled together with his six cousins. The center of his

government was in France.


23. Walther, Panno and Schard 62 946-884

Another son of Gal, ruled together with Panno and Schard, the

grandsons of Hillyr. From Walther Italy is called Walhen or Walschland.

Panno gave his name to Pannonia. From Schard came the Schardinger or



24. Main, Žngel and Treibl 70 884-814

Sons of Walther, ruled jointly with Treibl, son of Panno. From

Žngel are descended the Angles who lived in Thringen and Meissen.

25. Myela, Laber and Penno 100 814-714

They ruled jointly.


26. Venno and Helto 70 714-644

Ruled jointly. Helto invaded and settled in Italy, expelling the

former inhabitants.


27. Mader (Madyas) 55 644-589

Made extensive conquests. He built Milan. He led a German campaign

as far as Syria and Palestine. Of his sons, Balweis received Lombardy,

Sigweis Bavaria, and Brenner Thringen and Meissen.


28. Brenner II and Koenman 110 589-479

Brenner was the son of Mader. He was an "Engl"nder" and king of

the Schwaben. His wife was Th"m"rin (Tomyris), queen of the Getae,

Dacians and Scythians. Brenner sent her troops to help in the war

against Cyrus. He also defeated Darius who tried to invade the lower

Danube region. Together Brenner and Th"m"rin conquered much of Asia

Minor as far as Armenia. His nephew K"nman, son of Sigweis, was king of

the Bavarians. Brenner expelled K"nman and 300,000 Bavarians from

Bohemia and resettled that region with Schwaben, who then became known

as Markmannen. Some of the expelled Bavarians settled in Bavaria

proper, but by far the largest number of them crossed the Alps into

Italy, from where they drove out some of the Etruscans. After the death

of K"nman, the Bavarians of Italy were ruled by the kings Zeck, Ber

(who built Bern or Verona) and Breitmar.


29. Landein with his sons 80 479-399

Ant"r and R"g"r

30. Brenner III 38 399-361

Son of Breitmar, was king over both Schwaben and Bavarians, and

reigned over Germany and Italy. Under his leadership the Schwaben and

Bavarians sacked Rome. He had sons H"rkaz, Matsch"r, Guotfrid and

Schirm. His daughter Gueta was married to Philip of Macedon. Burning of

Rome (July 390) occurred in his 9th year.


31. Schirm 361-263

Son of Brenner III. He and his son Brenner IV ruled until 60 years

after death of Alexander -- although Brenner IV dies earlier. Brenner

led a massive German invasion into Greece, plundered Macedonia and the

oracle at Delphi, but was killed in 279 B.C.


32. Thessel 85 279-194

Son of Brenner IV, ruled jointly with his uncle Lauther and his

brother Euring. Lauther, with his brother Lebmner, broke into Asia

Minor with 20,000 men and settled in Cappadocia and Phrygia. Thessel's

sons Breitmar, Ernvest and Wirdm"r ruled over the Bavarians in Italy.

His wife, Teutscha, was queen of Istria. The Romans defeated the

Bavarians in Italy, killing Wirdm"r and 40,000 of his men.

33. Dieth I no length given 194-172

Son of Thessel, ruled jointly with his son Diethmer. Diethmer

invaded Palestine on behalf of Antiochus IV, took many Jews captive and

settled them in Germany near Regensburg. Soon afterwards Hannibal

attacked Italy and many of the Bavarians from Northern Italy joined him

against Rome. After Hannibal's defeat there followed a war between the

Romans and Bavarians in northern Italy which lasted 12 years. Finally,

weary of fighting, the Bavarians left Italy, where they had dwelt for

almost 400 years, and settled in Pannonia. Dieth was also driven from

Italy, whereupon Diethmer, in retaliation, persuaded Philip V of

Macedon to renew his hostilities with Rome. Entz and Olor, German kings

in Istria and Transylvania, aided Philip, but Rome won. In Asia Minor

Rome launched an attack against the German kings Orthjag, Gompelmer,

G"udhor, Orgsgund and Eposgnad. These retreated eastward over the

Halys, where they were defeated, sued for peace, and swore never to

raid foreign nations again. The Romans also defeated king Entz of



34. Baermund and Synpol 45 172-127

Ruled after the death of Dieth I and Diethmer.


35. Boiger, Kels and 27 127-100


They ruled jointly over the Germans and Bavarians in 127 B.C. They

gathered an army of 300,000 Saxons and Bavarians, intending to invade

and resettle Italy, from which they had been driven some 70 years

earlier. They were, however, defeated by Marius at Aquae Sextiae (102

B.C.) and Vercellae (101 B.C.). Boiger died, having reigned 27 years.


36. Scheirer 30 100-70

Mithridates tried to enlist his aid in the struggles against Rome.


37. Ernst (Arionistus) and Vocho 20 70-50

Ernst was king over Germany and France, his brother-in-law, Vocho,

over Bavaria, Austria and Hungary. Ernst invaded France, fought there

for 14 years, and settled it with 120,000 Germans. Next 33,000

Bavarians decided to go via France and Spain into Italy. They were

joined by the Helvetti. Julius Caesar defeated them, sent the Helvetii

back home, but allowed the Bavarians to settle in Burgundy. Caesar also

defeated king Ernst.


38. Pernpeist 10 50-40

He made a treaty with Persia against the Romans, made raids into

Greece and even attacked Apulia and Naples by sea. The Bavarians,

having been driven from Italy, lived near the Drave and Danube for 127

years. In the times of Ernst and Pernpeist they left their homes,

sailed down the Danube and settled near the Vistula, Dniester and

Dnieper, where they remained some 550 years. The name of the Bavarians

is not encountered again for some 500 years, till the time of Attila.


39. Cotz, Dieth II and circa 40-13


In 13 B.C. Augustus made an attack against the Germans on the

Danube. Later he settled 40,000 Westphalians, Hessians and Schwaben on

the west bank of the Rhine.


Virtual anarchy now began to reign among the German tribes. There

were anti-Roman and pro-Roman factions and these split whole tribes and

even families. The ruling families soon killed each other off in family

feuds and inter-tribal warfare.

The royal house that next dominated Germany came from the

Sicambrian Franks. Their history appears later in the "Compendium",

chapter XII A.




For centuries students have been taught that Europe was one of

late areas of the world to become civilized. Educational tradition

would have us believe that Egyptians were erecting mighty temples of

stone, had wide astronomical knowledge, knew how to write, thousands of

years before Western Europe came to the threshold of civilization.

While Egyptians and Babylonians were arrayed in gorgeous robes and

painted with cosmetics, historians would have Europe's forests sparcely

populated with naked white savages. Europe's dominant place in world

affairs is, we are told, a relatively new phenomenon.

Nothing could be further from the truth!



European civilization -- and its history -- is as old as Egypt's.

But it has been suppressed. Not since the close of the seventeenth

century has it been allowed to be taught publicly.

It did not happen in a day. It took centuries of calculated

plotting and ridicule to wipe from the pages of history the record of

early Europe. Historians and theologians have conspired together to

label Europe's early history as "myth."

Their motive is plain. If theologians and historians had allowed

the early history of Europe to be taught in schools and universities,

they would have had to admit the authenticity and the authority of the

Bible. THAT they did not want to do.

Had they not expunged the early events of Europe every one today

would be reading of the journeys of Noah, Shem, Heber, Asshur and many

other Biblical heroes into Europe. Children would be reading in schools

today of the early settlement of Assyrians and Chaldeans in Western

Europe. They would know where the "Ten Lost Tribes" of the House of

Israel migrated.

All this has been purposely hidden. But it has not all been lost.

Scattered through the writings of scholars of the fifteenth, sixteenth

and seventeenth centuries are fragmentary records which unveil what

really happened in Europe. In museums and libraries, in state archives

are still to be found documents of hoary antiquity corroborating the

Biblical record.

This chapter contains the account of one of those documents. It is

a history of the Danubian Valley -- the area of Austria, Hungary,

Bohemia, Bavaria and neighboring regions. The document is the

"Oesterreichische Chronik" -- the Austrian Chronicle. It has never

before been rendered into modern English. A number of copies of the

Chronicle are scattered throughout Europe. The last entry in the

Chronicle is of the year 1404.



The Austrian Chronicle begins its consecutive history with a man

of princely birth -- none other than the patriarch Abraham! But what

has Abraham to do with the history of the Danubian Valley in Europe?

Very much.

The most ancient Greek name for the Danube River was the River

Noe. Noe is the Greek form of the Hebrew Noah.

Noah was the patriarch of the whole human family following the

flood. His patriarchal authority passed on to Shem, who superseded his

older brother Japheth. In each succeeding generation the hereditary

right of the firstborn was passed on from father to son. Terah was

eighth in descent from Shem (Genesis 11:10-26), and the heir to Noah

and Shem. Terah had, according to the Biblical record, three sons. The

oldest, Haran, was born when Terah was 70 years old (Gen. 11:26). He

died before his father Terah did (Gen 11:28). "And Haran died in the

presence of his father Terah in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the

Chaldees." Why Haran died young will be made plain shortly from the

Austrian Chronicle.

Replacing Haran as heir was Terah's second son, Abram (whose name

was later changed to Abraham).

In the year 1941 God called Abraham to forsake his kindred, his

country -- everything. "Now the Lord said unto Abram: 'Get thee out of

thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house, unto

the land that I will show thee. And I will bless thee, and make thy

name great ...'" (Gen. 12:1-2).

Abram had to give up his hereditary privileges. Though he was a

"mighty prince" (Gen. 23:6), he willingly forsook his inherited rights.

"So Abram went, "declares verse 4.

Now consider the Austrian Chronicle. It begins with the birth of

Abram (he is called Abraham throughout the Chronicle) under the

Assyrian Count Sattan of Aligem (sect 41). (Several of the earliest

geographic names in the Chronicle are otherwise unknown from

contemporary records.) Abram "took to wife Susanna from the land of

Samam, the daughter of Terromant and his wife Sanyet."

Of this union we read in Scripture: "And Abraham gave all that he

had unto Isaac. But unto the sons of the concubines, that Abraham had,

Abraham gave gifts, and he sent them away from Isaac his son, while he

yet lived, eastward, unto the east country" -- Assyria (Gen. 25:5-6).

From the Austrian Chronicle we learn that "Abraham and Susanna had

a son Achaim." Then "Abraham of Temonaria and Count Sattan of

Aligemorum had war with each other, till Abraham was driven from the

land in poverty." It was in this war that Haran, Abram's older brother,

was slain. Abram was driven out of Count Sattan's realm and fled to the

Danube River Valley in 1945, according to the Chronicle. There he built

a home and settled until the death of Count Sattan.

It was now 1942 -- three years after Abram fled. Abram, according

to the Chronicle, took Achaim and Susanna and went to the land of

Judeisapta -- "the Jews' land" -- Palestine, according to the Bible.

(The later scribes who copied the Austrian Chronicle assumed it was the

Danube Valley because Jews were later settled there also.) From

Palestine Abraham sent away eastward to Assyria Susanna and Achaim (in

Isaac's second year). From there they journeyed to the Danubian

settlement Abram made years before. The previous chapter revealed that

the Danubian Valley was then under Assyrian hegemony.

The following sequence of landgraves and dukes is taken from the

standard text of the "Oesterreichische Chronik" -- the Austrian

Chronicle. Variations in spelling are at times included. The lengths of

reign and dates are in every case those of the Chronicle, which

correctly preserves the chronology beginning three years before the

call of Abram.

Rulers Lengths of Reign Dates

Abraham 30 1945-1915

Susanna, Abraham's 19 1915-1896

concubine, departs

Palestine for Assyria, and

then the Danubian Valley.

Achaim, Abraham and 45 1896-1851

Susanna's son, married a

Hungarian countess named

Nannaym. They had four

children; one daughter,

Volim; another, Rawlint; a

son, Laptan; and a third

daughter, Remmanna.

Raban -- Volim's husband, 45 1851-1806

a baron from Bohemia; they

have one son, Laptan. He

changed the name of his

duchy from Arratim to


Laptan -- Raban and 3 1806-1803

Volim's son, dies without

wife and heir.

Laptan, Achaim's son, 49 1803-1754

marries a countess from

Bohemia by name of Rama.

They added Steiermark to

their hereditary land.

Had two sons, Rimer and


Rymer, died without wife (6 months) (1754)

and heir.

Nymer (Nynter), made the 52 1754-1702

margraviate to a dukedom,

called himself "Nynter, a

Heathen, duke of Sawricz."

Married a duchess called

Sinna. Only son is Lynal.

Lynal, called the land 32 1702-1670

Sannas, after his wife;

married a countess from

Hungary called Synna. They

had three children: a son,

Rantan; a daughter, Lengna;

and another son, Poyna.

Rantan, died without wife (3 months) (1670)

and heir.

Poyna (Peynna, Pyna), 51 1670-1619

Lynal's youngest son,

married a duchess from

Bohemia, named Sanna. They

had four children: a daughter,

Sinna, and three sons, Pynan,

Lippan, and Rimman.

Pynan, died without wife and 1 1619-1618


Lippan, died without wife (14 days) (1618)

and heir.

Rymman, died without wife (6 months) (1618)

and heir.

Zawan (Zaban, Sawan), 61 1618-1557

Synna's husband, a Hungarian

duke. They have one son


Rattan (Nattan) marries a 67 1557-1490

duchess from Bohemia,

named Sanna. They had

two sons, Reymar and Noro.

Reymar (Rymmar) died (1 1/2 months) (1490)

without wife and heir.

Noro (Nero), marries a 43 1490-1447

wife from Carinthia,

named Lenna; they had

two children, a daughter,

Sanna; and a son, Aucz.

Aucz, changed the name 57 1447-1390

of the land from Sannas

to Pannaus, called him

self "Aucz, a Heathen."

Married Lenna, a duchess

from Bohemia. They had

one son, Nonas.

Nonas, marries Lenna, a 57 1390-1333

duchess from Lanazz. They

had a daughter, Sinna.

Tanton (Tonton), count 40 1333-1293

from Panticz, marries Sinna;

they had two sons, Tatan

and Remar. Remar died

before his father.

Tatan (Taton), marries 61 1293-1232

duchess from Bohemia,

named Synnan (Synna);

both later buried at the

Danube near Vienna. They

had two daughters, Sanna

and Lany (Lanus). Older

daughter died a year after


Mantan (Manthan, Mathan), 49 1232-1183

a duke from Bohemia,

marries Lany. They had a`

son, Manan.

Manan, marries Hungarian 59 1183-1124

countess, Lenna. They had

a son Nanaym, and a daughter

Senna. Senna died before her


Nanaim (Nananaym, Nanaym) 38 1124-1086

marries Menna (Manna), a

Hungarian duchess. They

had two daughters, Lenna and

Zema (Sema), and a son Ramaim.

Lenna died unmarried. Ramaim

(Ramaym) died a year after

his father.

Mangais (Mangaizz, Mangrizz, 46 1086-1040

Magais), a duke from Hungary,

marries Zema. He changes

the name of the land from

Pannauz (Pannawz) to Tantamo

(Tantamus). He calls himself

"Mangais, a Heathen." They

had one son Manan.

Manan, marries a 55 1040-985

Bohemian duchess named

Sinna (Suma, Sanna, Samia).

They had one daughter,

Semna (Senna).

Laptan, a Hungarian duke 67 985-918

marries Semna. They had

one son, Lanan.

Lanan, married Sanna (Senna), 51 918-867

a duchess from Bohemia. They

had two daughters, Sanna

and Senna, and a son, Maran.

Senna died before her father.

Maran, died without wife and (6 months) (867)


Manay, a duke from Bohemia, 54 867-813

marries Sanna. They had a

son, Tantan (Tanton), and

a daughter, Lemna (Lenna).

Lemna died unmarried.

Tantan, married Hungarian 57 813-756

duchess named Malan (Malon).

They had two sons, Zanan

(Sanan, Janan) and Peyman,

and a daughter, Peynin (Peyn,


Zanan, died without wife (3 months) (756)

and heir.

Peyman, married Hungarian 48 756-708

duchess named Lanna. They

had three sons, Nanman

(spelled also Nannan,

Mannan, and Nanan), Gennan

and Saptan.

After the death of Peyman and Lanna, who had both been heathen,

the "Oesterreichische Chronik" records that the whole country accepted

the Jewish faith! The next chapter reveals how and why it happened!




How did this unique influence of the Jews in Eastern Europe begin?

Scholars and historians -- many of them Jews -- have puzzled over

the presence of the huge Jewish population in Eastern Europe. There is

no recorded evidence that they migrated from Babylon after the

Babylonian captivity. Nor are they the descendants from the destruction

of Jerusalem by Titus in A.D. 70.

Who, then, brought the Jews into Eastern Europe seven centuries

before the birth of Jesus.

The answer has been in the Bible all these years! It is found in

II Kings 18:13-16. "Now in the fourteenth year of king Hezekiah did

Sennacherib king of Assyria come up against all the fortified cities of

Judah, and took them. And Hezekiah king of Judah sent to the king of

Assyria to Lachish, saying: 'I have offended; return from me; that

which thou puttest on me will I bear.' And the king of Assyria

appointed unto Hezekiah king of Judah three hundred talents of silver

and thirty talents of gold. And Hezekiah gave him all the silver that

was found in the house of the Lord, and in the treasures of the king's

house. At that time did Hezekiah cut off the gold from the doors of the

temple of the Lord, and from the door-posts which Hezekiah king of

Judah had overlaid, and gave it to the king of Assyria." A parallel

account may be read in either II Chronicles 32 or Isaiah 36.

Notice the dates of this event -- the fourteenth year of Hezekiah

-- 711-710. Sennacherib was at this time associated with his father on

the throne of Assyria. A vigorous general, he captured all the

fortified cities of Judah except Jerusalem, enslaved the inhabitants.

Where he carried them had been unknown to historians. But the answer is

preserved for us in the "Austrian Chronicle". He carried them into

Eastern Europe along the Danube River. But how could an Assyrian king

of Nineveh plant tens of thousands of Jewish captives in Europe? --

because Central Europe was then part of the Assyrian Empire.



Rulers Lengths of Reign Dates

Gennan, middle son of Peyman, 4 708-704

became duke. He was overcome,

records the Austrian Chronicle,

by the Jews and was circumcised,

accepted Jewish marriage

customs, put away images and

acknowledged the Hebrew

faith. He called himself "Gennan,

a Jew." There were not yet any

Jewish noble, willing to give

their daughters in marriage to

him. So he died without wife

and heir.

Nanman and Saptan, sons of 61 704-643

Peyman, split the country.

Nanman chose the lower and

Septan the upper part.

Nanman married a Hungarian

duchess called Meynin (Mennin).

Saptan became the Master over

his brother and over all the

land, also changed its name to

Mittanauz. He married a

Bohemian duchess called Salaim

(Salan, Salann, Salim), who

was a Jewess. They had two

sons, Tanton and Rippan.

Tanton died without wife before

his father.

Rippan, a Jew, married a 57 643-586

countess from Penenaw (Pennawe),

named Menna. They had one son,

Lantawz, and two daughters,

Pamyn and Rachaym. Lantawz and

Pamyn (Panym) died unmarried

before their father.

Salant, a Jew, a duke from 45 586-541

Hungary, married Rachaim.

They had one son, Piltan II

(Pilton, Pilkan) who died.

After both this son and

Salant had died, Rachaim


Laptan, a Jew from Bohemia, 15 541-526

married Rachaim. Changed

the name of the land from

Mittanauz (Mittenaus) to

Fannau (Fannawe). They

died without an heir.

At that time there ruled 40 526-486

a Jewish duke in Hungary,

called Almantan. He

usurped the power and

conquered the dukedom of

Fannaw. Almantan brought

with him his wife, a

Bohemian duchess, named

Schlammyn (Schalmmyn). She

was Jewish. They had two

sons, Rantanaiz and Halman

(Halbman). Halman became

duke of Hungary.

Rantanaiz (Rattans), in 57 486-429

his day the name of the

land was changed from

Fannaw to Aurata. He

called himself "Rattanaiz,

a Jew." Married Bohemian

duchess called Sawlin

(Sawlim). They had a son

who died without name, and

a daughter, Lenna.

Rettan, Hungarian duke, 45 429-384

marries Lenna. He changed

the name of the land from

Aurata to Fyla. They had

a son, Manton (Montan).

Flanton, married Sanna, 54 384-330

a duchess from Bavaria.

They had a son, Hegan and

a daughter, Semyn. Hegan

died unmarried before his


Rattan, a Hungarian duke, 39 330-291

marries Semyn. They had

one son, Attalon.

Attalon, married a Bohemian 57 291-234

duchess, Magalim. They had

three sons, Raban, Penyn

and Effra, and Semna, a

daughter. Semna died young.

Penyn also died without

wife and heir.

Raban (Rawan, Raban), (6 months) (234)

married a Bohemian duchess

called Sancta (Santta,

Santla). They died without


Effra, Attalon's youngest 49 234-185

son, married Hungarian

duchess, Samaym, who was

Jewish. They had one son, Naban.

Naban, married a Hungarian 52 185-133

duchess, a Jewess, Samanna.

They had a son, Rolan, and

a daughter, Signa who died


Rolan (Nolan), changed the 32 133-101

name of the land from Fyla

to Rarasma. Married a

Hungarian duchess, Sanna.

They had two daughters,

Eminna and Sanna. Eminna

died unmarried.

Remar (Reinar, Reimar), 53 101- 48

a Bohemian duke, married

Sanna. They had one son,


Natan, married Hungarian 41 48- 7

duchess, Satym (Satyn).

They had two daughters,

Masym and Rachym.

Masym, a duchess. She 2 1/2 7- 5

died before marrying. Her

sister Rachym obtained the


Raban (Naban), a Bohemian 51 5 B.C. to 47 A.D.

duke, married Rachim. They

had two sons, Lanat (Lenat,

Lamer, Laniar), and Sannet

(Samet, Samer). Lanat died


Sannet, married a Hungarian 34 47- 81

duchess, Enna. They had a

son, Laban, and a daughter,

Racha (spelled also Ratha,

Rachaym, Rathaym). Laban

died before his father.

Saptan, duke from Bohemia 42 81-123

married Racha. They had

a son, Salamet (Salamer),

and a daughter, Semna

(Sanna, Senna). Salamet

died unmarried before his father.

Rolant, a Bohemian duke 52 123-175

marries Semna. They had a

son, Rattan, a daughter,

Amama II (Amania), and

another son, Jannat (Jannas,

Jannet, Jamer). Rattan

and Amama died without heir

before their father.

Jannat (Jannett Janner), 51 175-226

changed the name of his

inheritance from Rarasma

to Corrodancia. Married

a Bohemian duchess called

Samanna. They had a son,

Manton (Montan). With him

ended the predominance of the

Jewish faith, and the land

lapsed again to Heathenism.

Manton 45 226-271

In his time heathen from Hungary and other lands forced Manton to

become a heathen and to pray to images. "He called himself Manton, a

Heathen." He married a heathen duchess from Hungary, named Signa. They

had two sons, Natan (Mathan) and Reptan. Reptan died young and




The sudden influx of heathenism in the hitherto predominantly

Jewish patrimony was due to a mass migration from the east. This was

the period of the last famous Odin or Wodan -- king of the Saxons from

256-300. He led numerous tribes from Eastern Europe following the Roman

attack upon Dacia (the modern Romania). The story of Wodan will be made

plain in a succeeding chapter.

Natan, married a duchess 51 271-322

from Hungary named Salymna

(Salynna). They had two

sons, Salanata and Hemna

(Hemma, Henna, Honna). The

latter died without heir.

Salanata, married a 41 322-363

Bohemian duchess called

Alamynn. They had one

son, Rattan, a heathen.

Rattan, married a Bohemian 32 363-395

duchess, Sympna (Synna,

Symna). They had a son,

Fultan (Sultan, Fulkan,

Fullan) who died without

heir before his father.

Rolant, a heathen Hungarian 51 395-446

duke was established in

Corrodancia by the Romans.

He brought along his wife,

a Bohemian duchess called

Salympna (Salymna). They

had one son, Sattan.

Sattan, married a Hungarian 51 446-497

duchess, Samynna. From now

on the dukes in Corrodancia,

were Catholic nobles. Sattan

and Samynna died without an


The Romans established Amman, a noble count, in Corrodancia. He

secretly believed and practiced Catholicism.

Amman, changed the name 43 497-540

of the land from Corrodancia

to Avara. He brought along

his wife Helena, a secret

Christian. Later known as

"St. Amman" and "St. Helena,"

they converted much of the

population. When the Romans

found it out they slew Amman

and many of the people, but

not Helena. They had three

sons, Johanns, Albrecht, and

Dietreich. A11 three

became dukes of Avara and

changed the name to Osterland.

They split the land and Johanns

became the chief over his two


Johanns, married a 32 540-572

noble countess from Rome

called Anna. They had no

heir. Albrecht became

duke of Osterland, since

Dietreich died shortly

after Johanns.

Albrecht, changed the 31 572-603

name of the land from Osterland

to Oesterreich -- now the

official name of Austria. He

married a duchess from

Bohemia, Katherin. They had

a son Eberhart, a daughter

Ann, and another son, Johanns.

Johanns and Anna died shortly

after their father.

Eberhart, married Osanna, 32 603-635

a duchess from Bavaria.

They had two sons, Jacob

and Albrecht. They both

died before father and

mother Thereafter the land

was turned into a margraviate.

Hainreich, duke from Bohemia 30 635-665

was given Austria by the

Roman emperor. Hainreich

(Henry), became Margrave of

Austria. He brought with

him his wife, a duchess from

Hungary named Ursula. They

had no heir.

Otto -- Hainreich granted 18 665-683

Austria to Otto of Hungary.

He styled himself "Otto,

by the grace of God, Margrave

of Austria and Duke of Hungary."

Married a duchess from Bohemia

called Elsbet. They had two

sons, Chunrat and Johans.

Johans died young.

Chunrat, made the 50 683-733

margraviate a dukedom. He

styled himself "Chunrat,

by the grace of God a

Roman king, always a

multiplier of the empire,

and duke of Austria. His

wife was Anna, a Hungarian

duchess. They had three

sons, Hainreich, Steffan

and Albrecht. They split

the land and Albrecht

became chief.

Albrecht, married a 49 733-782

Bohemian duchess, Salme

(Salome). They had two

sons, Ludweig and Fridreich.

They divided the land.

Ludweig, was the higher 32 782-814

duke in Austria. Married

a duchess from Hungary

named Elena. They had a

son, Johannes and a

daughter, Dorothea, who

died before her father.

Johannes, married a duchess 49 814-863

from Bohemia called Anna.

They had one son, Hainreich.

Hainreich, married a 31 863-894

duchess from Hungary named

Ursula. They had three

sons, Johanns, Steffan

and Philipp. Steffan and

Philipp died young.

Johannes, married Margareta, 28 894-922

duchess from Bohemia. They

had two sons, Albrecht and

Ludweig. Albrecht died

unmarried prior to his father.

Ludweig, married a duchess 42 922-964

from Hungary called Elsbet.

They had one son, Albrecht.

Albrecht, married a duchess 28 964-992

from Bohemia, Osanna. They

had two sons, Ott and Hainreich.

Ott died unmarried prior to his


Albrecht was a contemporary of Leopold, duke of the rising House

of Babenberg. Leopold was appointed by Otto II of Germany as supreme

ruler of the Austrian mark.

Hainreich, or Henry, 28 992-1020

succeeded; married a

Hungarian duchess called

Margareta. They had two

sons, Peter and Johanns,

and a daughter, Elisabet


Peter and Johanns 1 1/2 1020-1021

Johanns was duke jointly with

Peter of Austria for a year

and a half, when he died

without wife and heir. Peter 3 1021-1024

succeeded as duke for three

years and also died without

heir. His dukedom passed

to the Babenbergs.

In 976 the chief authority in Austria had passed to the House of

Babenberg. The powerful rule of the Babenbergs -- and the

interrelationships of the royal families -- may be found in any

thorough English or German history of Austria. The Babenbergs became

extinct in 1246. Thereafter the realm passed into the hands of the

famous Hapsburgs.

With this the history of early southeastern Europe, which began in

the days of Abraham, closes.




Many a school boy has heard of Odin, the great Norse hero. But how

many realize that Odin was a real king of Denmark? That he founded the

kingdom of Denmark in the days of David, king of Israel? That he

visited Solomon's temple? of that Odin was the first Danish king to

cross the Atlantic -- as did Danish Vikings centuries later?

For centuries Danes revered the history of their nation. Not until

the atheistic educational philosophy of German schools permeated their

country did the Danes discard the early history of their nation. Modern

historians, imbued with the idea that myth was the only form in which

early man knew how to write, treat all Danish history as myth. They

have never investigated to see whether it were so. of course myth was

grafted in the Middle Ages on the early history of Denmark. That

tragedy befell all nations under the sway of religious superstition in

the Middle Ages.

But that does not prove that the essential core of early Danish

history is invalid. Today historians labor under the delusion that

history was artificially created after traditional mythology had long

been established. Not so. Recorded and traditional history around the

world was carefully preserved in palaces and royal libraries. Only

later did myth embrace history,



Now is the time to restore the lost history of Denmark. The most

accessible outline of Danish history is that found in Anderson's "Royal

Genealogies". Many other volumes contribute to the story, but only

Anderson's work correctly preserves in English the chronology of the

early period.

Danish written history properly begins with the first king to bear

rule over the Danish or Cymbric peninsula. That king was Danus I. In

Danish history he is also called Dan I. He was the first Odin or Votan

-- from the Hebrew "adonai" meaning "lord."

Denmark originally received its name from the tribe of the Danaan.

It passed to the king who took the name of the subjects over whom he


King Dan I commenced his reign in 1040. This was the year of the

break-up of the German realm. The division of German territory among

the three sons of Wolfheim -- Kells, Gall and Hiller -- left the

seafarers of the far northwest of Europe without leadership. To fill

the void the German and Hebrew inhabitants of Denmark called upon the

scion of the Trojan House to reign over them. That scion was Dan I. He

lived at the time in Thrace.



The present kings of Northwestern Europe and Great Britain are all

related to Dan I of Denmark. The "Saxon Chronicle" commences the line

of Dan I with the following two names: "Noah, Sem." Thereafter a long

break occurs in the genealogy -- similar to the Biblical statement:

"Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham" (Matthew l:l).

This gap in Odin's genealogy is partially filled in by the

Icelandic "Langfedgatal". After Sem, the "Langfedgatal" gives the

following genealogy on Odin's father's side:

"Saturnus of Krit







Priam, King of Troy

Minon or Memnon, who married Priam's daughter. Their son was Tror,

whom we call Thor, the father of Hloritha.







Seskef, or Sescef."

In Danish literature Seskef -- sometimes spelled Sceaf -- is a

title of Odin. It means a "sheaf" of grain. Odin claimed to be a kind

of savior, or a lord. He laid claim to being the sheaf that

symbolically represented the Messiah (Leviticus 23:9-14).

But why should Dan I, a king of Denmark, copy a ceremony

perpetuated by the law of Moses? Is there a connection between Odin and


The answer is found in who Saturnus of Krit, ancestor of Odin,

really was. In modern English the name would be Saturn of Crete. There

were many Saturns in antiquity, often confused with one another.

Usually the name was applied to a man who flees or who hides himself.

Saturn is a Latin word derived from a root meaning to flee into

hiding. The Greek term was Kronos. This particular Saturn of Crete was

so famous that the Phoenician historian Sanchoniathon spoke of him.

Fragments of his works have been preserved by Eusebius in "Preparation

of the Gospel", book i, ch. x. Here are his words: "For Kronus or

(Saturn), whom the Phoenicians call Israel ...." ("Corey's Ancient

Fragments of the Phoenician, Carthaginian, Babylonian, Egyptian and

other Authors", by E. Richmond Hodges, page 21.)

Israel was the name of Jacob. That would make Odin a son of Shem

and a son of Jacob. But why was Jacob called Saturn? Because Jacob

became famous for fleeing or hiding from his enemies. Jacob's mother

warned him of his brother Esau's wrath: "Now, therefore, my son,

hearken to my voice; and arise, flee thou to Laban my brother in Haran"

(Genesis 27:43). "And it was told Laban ... that Jacob was fled" --

this time back to Palestine. (Gen. 31:22).

But how is one to account for the title to Crete in Jacob's name?

Certainly Jacob did not have title to it prior to descending into

Egypt. The answer is, Jacob obtained it from Pharaoh in Egypt.

Here are the facts. Egypt was a vast Mediterranean power in the

days of Jacob. One of the areas early settled by Egyptians was the

island of Crete, an important naval gateway in the Mediterranean. From

Crete -- Caphtor in Hebrew -- came the Philistines (Jer. 47:4 and Amos

9:7). The Philistines descended from Mizraim, father of the Egyptians

(Gen. 10:13-14). Ruling over the Egyptians and Philistines in Crete and

the eastern Nile Delta was a little-known dynasty of Egyptian kings.

They are mentioned in the "Book of Sothis" by Sncellus. Manetho does

not include them among his dynasties.

The king of this dynasty, who was subject to the jurisdiction of

the great Pharaoh in Egypt, was Rameses (l744-1715). Because of

Joseph's service to the Egyptian government, the Pharaoh transferred

primary title to the Land from the line of Rameses to the line of

Israel -- and that included not only Goshen, but Crete!

And that is how Israel (Jacob) anciently obtained title to the

island of Crete.

The "Langfedgatal" genealogy of Odin of Denmark may therefore be

clarified as follows:


Saturnus of Krit -- Israel or Jacob (1856-1709)

Jupiter, son of Saturn of Krit -- Judah

Darius, descendant of Jupiter (Judah) -- is Dara or Darda (see the

family name in I Chronicles 2:4,6); Josephus calls him Dardanus

(1477-1412); he fled Italy and founded Troy (the Norse geneaology skips

the names of Tarah and Mahol between Judah and Darda)

Erichhonius -- Ericthonius (1412-1366), second king of Troy

Troes -- Tros (1366-1326), third king of Troy

Ilus -- Illus (1326-1277), fourth king of Troy

Lamedon -- Laomedon (1277-1233), fifth king of Troy

Priam -- Priamus (1233-1181), king of Troy during first Trojan


Eighth in descent from Priam was Seskef, who was Danus I or Odin

(Votan), first king of Denmark -- 1040-999. Odin was a Hebrew, of the

line of Judah, from whom the chief rulers were to come. "For Judah

prevailed above his brethren, and of him came the chief ruler" (I

Chron. 5:2).

Now consider over whom Odin ruled in Northwest Europe.



King Danus' realm extended far beyond the reaches of the Danish

peninsula. The people over whom he ruled were a collection of tribes

which constituted the greatest sea power of the time -- the Pelasgians

or sea people. From the list of sea powers, commented on in Volume I of

the Compendium, it is proved that the Pelasgians were Hebrews and their

allies. Their chief center of habitation was Palestine. Denmark was one

of several overseas settlements. Israel gained power in 1057, shortly

before the break-up of Germany in Europe. They retained it until 972,

when Solomon's kingdom in Palestine was split. For the Israelites to

have obtained dominion of the sea in 1057 in the Mediterranean and

Atlantic presupposes that they already were living along the western

shores of Europe before that date.

When and how did the Children of Israel migrate to Western Europe?

The answer is found in Cymbric or Welsh history.

A fragmentary Welsh record, called the Welsh Triad, reads as

follows: "First was the race of the Cymry, who came with Hu Gadarn to

Ynys Prydain." Hu came from "the land of summer" -- a land located

somewhere in what later constituted the realm of Constantinople (the

capital of the eastern Roman Empire). He journeyed to Ynys Pridain --

the Welsh name of the Isle of Britain. This first major settlement

preceded the migration in 1149 of Brutus of Troy to Britain.

Who was Hu Gadarn? Gadarn is a Welsh word. It means the "Mighty."

Hu was a short form of the Old Celtic name Hesus ("Origines Celticae",

by Edwin Guest, vol. 2, p. 9). Hesus is the Celtic -- and also the

Spanish -- pronunciation of Jesus. Was there a famous "Jesus" who lived

in the balmy summerland of the eastern Mediterranean centuries before

the time of Jesus the Christ? Most certainly! It is found in Hebrews

4:8, "For if Jesus that is, Joshua) had given them rest, then would he

not afterward have spoken of another day."

Jesus was merely the Greek form of the Hebrew name Joshua. Hu or

Hesus the Mighty was Joshua the Mighty, the great general who led

Israel into Palestine. And the Welsh Triad records that in his later

years he also settled Israel peaceably in the British Isle. From there,

for trading purposes, they spread to the coasts of the continent which

were subject to the German Cymry -- the descendants of the German king

Cimbrus (1679-1635). That is how Israel in Denmark came to be known by

the tribal name of Cymry.

As time elapsed the peninsula of Denmark became a chief area of

trade and commerce. It is strategically located to dominate both North

and Baltic sea trade. So together with the original German tribes of

the Cymry and Dauciones were migrants from Britain. In 1040 the Hebrew

Cymry called for a descendant of Judah, a royal scion of the House of

Troy, to rule over them. Odin answered the call and led a migration out

of Thrace into Denmark and neighboring regions. The deeds of Odin upon

becoming king over the Cymry (sometimes spelled Cymbri) will be

included in a later section on the American Indian.



Below is the genealogical and historical line of Judah that

descended from Odin. Through intermarriage the line of Odin has

permeated throughout Western Europe. Small wonder that the lion of

Judah is the symbol on the coat of arms and shields of the royalty of

Northwestern Europe.

Kings of Denmark Lengths of Reign Dates

1. Danus I, or Odin 41 1040-999

first king of Denmark

2. Humblus, son of Odin 8 999-991

3. Lotherus, son of Odin 17 991-974

4. Boghius 5 974-969

5. Scioldus, son of Lotherus 80 969-889

6. Gram (or Gran) 31 889-858

Slain by Suibdagerus, a

king of Norway, in battle;

wives were Groa a Swede,

and Signe of Finland.

7. Suibdagerus 40 858-818

King of Denmark, Sweden,

and Norway, who, by force,

married Gran's daughter and

conquered Denmark.

8. Guthormus, son of Queen Signe 14 832-818

Reigned 14 years contemporary

with Suibdagerus.

9. Hadingus, another son of 54 818-764

Signe and Gram

10. Frotho I, son of Hadingus 77 764-687

11. Haldanus I, son of Frotho 56 687-631

12. Rhoe, son of Haldanus 63 631-568

13. Helgo, son of Haldanus 34 628-594

Reigned contemporary with

his brother.

14. Rolvo, son of Helgo by his 41 568-527

own daughter Ursa. Became

king after death of Rhoe;

was killed by Attile, king

of Sweden, who conquered


15. Hotherus, great-grandson 42 527-485

of Hadingus, son of king

Hotobrodus of Sweden.

King of Denmark and Sweden.

16. Roric Slyngeband, son of 49 485-436


17. Wigletus, son of Roric 48 436-388

18. Guitalchus 32 388-356

19. Vermundus, son of Wigletus 61 356-295

20. Uffe, son of Vermundus 30 295-265

21. Danus II, son of Uffe 37 265-228

22. Hugletus the Little, son 52 228-176

of Danus II

23. Frotho II, son of Hugletus 30 176-146



24. Danus III, son of Frotho 69 146- 77

In his time the German

Cymbrians joined the

Teutons in a terrible war

against Rome in 113.

Italy would have been

conquered if the consul

Marius had not defeated

them utterly.

25. Fridlevus I, the Swift, 37 77- 40

son of Danus

26. Frotho III, the Pacific, 54 40- 15

son of Fridlevus ("A.D.")

King of Denmark, Sweden

and Norway.

INTERREGNUM for nearly 4 years 15- 19

27. Hiarnus, a poet 2 19- 21

28. Fridlevus II, son of Frotho 12 21- 33

29. Frotho IV, the Liberal, 46 33- 79

son of Fridlevus

30. Ingellus Wendemothius, 23 79-102

son of Frotho

31. Olaus I, son of Ingellus 10 102-112

32. Haraldus I, reigned 5 112-117

contemporary with brother

33. Frotho V, brother of 19 112-131


34. Haraldus II, son of 10 131-141

Haraldus I

35. Haldanus II, son of 15 131-146

Haraldus II

Reigned 10 years

contemporary with

brother, 5 years alone.

36. Unquinus, king of Gothland, 9 146-155

succeeded son-in-law

Haldanus in Denmark.

37. Sivaldus I, son of

Unquinus 22 155-177

38. Sigarus, son of Sivaldus 13 177-190

39. Sivaldus II, son of 11 190-201


INTERREGNUM -- Rule of 40 201-241

5 governors

40. Haldanus III, married 20 241-261

Guritha, granddaughter

of Sigarus.

41. Haraldus III, (Hilletand 66 261-327

or Hilderand), son of

Haldanus; died in Sweden

after a seven-year war,

during which time his

daughter Haditha governed


42. Olaus II, brother of 4 327-331


43. Osmund, son of Olaus 10 331-341

44. Sivardus I, son of 9 341-350


45. Buthlus, brother of 1 350-351


46. Jarmericus, son of 16 351-367


47. Broderus, son of 2 367-369


48. Sivaldus III, son of 9 370-379


49. Snio (or Sino), son of 22 379-401


The next seven kings lived mostly abroad. They succeeded each

other as father and son.

50. Roderic 10 401-411

51. Sueno I 55 411-467

52. Guitlachus 50 467-517

53. Haraldus IV 46 481-527

54. Eschyllus 16 527-543

55. Veremundus 78 543-621

56. Osmund II 75 621-696

The following kings

lived in Denmark.

57. Biorno 4 696-701

58. Baldrus, son of Biorno 6 701-707

59. Haraldus V, son of Baldrus 8 707-715

60. Gormo I, son of Haraldus 50 715-765

61. Gotricus or Godfrey or 45 765-810

Sigfrid, commences

invasions of England 787

62. Olaus III 1 810-811

Because Gotricus became

the great legislator of the

Danes, his reign is often

begun from the year 777 as


Gotricus (or Godfrey), 33 777-810

called Sigfrid

Olaus III or Olabus 2 810-812


63. Hemmingius or Hemmingus or 4 812-816


64. Sivard II 2 816-818

65. Ringo, contemporary with 2 816-818

Sivard II

66. Regner 13 818-831

67. Harald VI 3 818-821

68. Sivard III, the last 3 831-834

heathen king of Denmark.



69. Eric I, the first king of 1 834-835

Denmark to adopt


During much of this and the preceding period Denmark was plagued

by joint reigns, disputed succession, and lesser kings who seized on

part of the realm. Whole tribes left the peninsula to settle

permanently in England. They were called Danes, but were, in fact, of

Anglo-Saxon stock.

70. Eric II, called Barno, 24 835-859

the Child

71. Canute I, surnamed the 20 859-879


72. Frotho VI 1 879-880

73. Gormo II (or Guthran or 13 880-893


74. Harald VII, Parcus, or the 8 893-901


75. Gormo III or Guthram or 30 901-931

or Godrum or Gormund

76. Harald VIII, called Blaatand 48 931-979

77. Sueno II or Suen-Otto, 35 979-1014

called Forked Beard

78. Ericus, King of Sweden 7 988-995

became King of Denmark

in 988 for 7 years, till

slain by his own servants,

when Suen-Otto was

restored by Scottish


79. Canute II or King Knut 21 1014-1035

the Great, united

Scandinavia under his

realm, it fell apart

at his death. Became

king of England 1016.

From this date on any thorough work on Denmark will satisfactorily

present its history. With the death of Canute a period of 2074 years

ended since the founding of the monarchy.




The Key to the history of the New World has been lost. Not a

single historian or archaeologist knows the true origin of American

Indian civilization. And no wonder! They have thrown away the keys to

that history. One of those keys will be found in Danish history. The

other -- and most important -- key in the checkered history of rugged




The famous eight-volume "History of Scotland", by John Hill

Burton, begins the history of Scotland this way: "It is in the year 80

of the Christian era that the territory in later times known as

Scotland comes out of utter darkness, and is seen to join the current

of authentic history. In that year Julius Agricola brought Roman troops

north ...."

This is a typical -- but mistaken -- view of Scottish history.

Historians have made an idol out of Roman records. What the Romans

either refused to preserve, or carelessly neglected to record, is all

too often treated with contempt by modern historians. Scotland was

never long under the Roman heel. The Romans were not particularly

interested in its rocky highlands. Consequently they did not occupy

themselves with recording the major events of the past that befell its


Today, numerous documents are available covering the history of

Scotland from very early times. These chronicles are usually disparaged

in historical circles -- or at most treated as quaint and curious

documents. But to restore the lost history of Scotland from them is

frowned on with disdain.

Yet in these records are the missing links which, until now, have

sundered the Old World from the New. It is time the true story of

Scotland were made known. Here, in outline form, are the major events

that make Scottish history.



The geographic location of Scotland is important in its history.

Scotland is the link between Scandinavia and Britain and Ireland. Its

shores provide control of the far reaches of the North Sea and the

ocean. Scotland was consequently invaded, peaceably and by frightful

devastation, several times in its history.

The first permanent settlement of Scotland, for which we have

recorded history, begins with the coming of Danus I of Denmark in 1040.

When the Cimbric tribes called upon an heir of the Trojan throne to

establish his domain in Denmark, Odin responded immediately.

Out of southeastern Europe he marched into Denmark. Coming with

him was a mixed tribe known as the Agathyrsi. Agathirsi was their name,

declares an old Scottish Chronicle. ("Controversial Issues in Scottish

History", by W. H. Gregg, p. 125.) Odin settled them in Scotland under

their leader Cruithne -- after whom they were called Cruithnians or

Cruithne. Herodotus, the Greek historian, traces the Agathyrsi to their

origin in the Scythian plains of what is now the southern Ukraine The

Agathyrsi were a mixed race. Various struggles led to a catastrophe

among the Agathyrsi who came with Odin. They found themselves without


As a consequence they sought wives among neighboring tribes. They

landed in Ireland at the time of the establishment of the Milesian

monarchy under Ghede the Herimon (1016-1002). Following a few

skirmishess an agreement was reached. The Milesians of Ireland agreed

to give wives to the Agathyrsi from their daughters on one condition:

that the Agathyrsi would pass on their inheritance through their

daughters, not their sons. This was to acknowledge that any royalty

which might follow derived kingship from their Milesian wives, not from

the Agathyrsi men.

On this condition the Agathyrsi departed again for Scotland.



The women who journeyed in that day to Scotland were Milesians --

of the family of Mileadh. In volume I of the Compendium the history of

the kingly line from Mileadh to the present throne in Great Britain was

given in its entirety. Its ancient connection with the throne of David,

in Judah, was made plain. But the genealogy of Mileadh was not


The line of Mileadh, in Irish records, properly begins with Easru

in Egypt. The name Easru is Old Irish for Ezra or Azariah.

Easru was a friend of Moses. One Irish tradition has him crossing

the Red Sea with the children of Israel. Another tradition has him

journeying, after the Exodus, to Scythia. Irish annalists became

confused by these two movements of Easru and his family. It never

occurred to them that he might have crossed the Red Sea with Moses, and

then, at a later time journeyed to Scythia.

No Irish records preserve the ancestry of Easru or Azariah. Many

myths were later created by Irish monks to account for this blank. It

seems not to have occurred to them that the Bible might record the

ancestry of Easru, ending at the Exodus.

The previous volume of the Compendium established the significant

fact that the symbol of the line of Easru and Mileadh was the Crimson

or Red Branch -- signifying the royal line Zarah, Judah's son (Genesis

38:30). Now open the Bible to the genealogy of Judah. "And the sons of

Zarah: Zimri, and Ethan, and Heman, and Calcol, and Dara .... And the

sons of Ethan: Azariah" (I Chronicles 2:6, 8).

Here is an Azariah, of the family of Judah -- and of Zarah, the

Red Branch. Azariah was of the same generation as Moses -- both were

great-great-grandsons of Jacob (compare with Exodus 6:16-20). Notice

also that Azariah's descendants did not enter Palestine. His genealogy

is not continued beyond the Exodus. That is significant.

Further, the name Azariah in Hebrew is often shortened to Ezra

(see any Biblical encyclopaedia). Its Old Irish form would be Easru. So

here we have an Azariah (or Ezra), of the same generation as Moses,

Living at the time of the Exodus, whose descendants did not settle in

Palestine, and who was of the Crimson Branch. At the same time Irish

history reveals an Easru -- Old Irish for Azariah or Ezra -- living in

Moses' day, crossing the Red Sea, but not settling in Palestine, whose

descendants in after generations used the symbol of the Crimson Branch!

Here is the line of Zarah -- Judah! Easru is Azariah, Judah's


In chart form (from the Bible and Stokvis' Manuel) the Milesian

princely line appears thus:






Azariah, who is Easru


Eibher Scot






Heber Glunfionn


Eimhear Glas










Ghede the Herimon, now gave daughters of the royal family to the

Cruithne. From these noble women sprang a line of kings that finally

united with the Scots in the person of Kenneth Mac Alpin in 843.

In after ages the Cruithne came to be known, falsely, as Picts.

The true Picts were another people altogether -- an uncivilized people

who painted themselves. Because the Cruithne ruled over the Picts who

lived in the Scottish highlands, later writers called them both

"Picts." The wild, unsettled Picts later disappeared from Scotland.

Where? -- historians do not know. But Scottish history tells!

But first, to summarize the story of the half-Jewish kings who

descended from the Cruithnians and the Hebrew Milesian women.



The complete king list -- and an accurate chronology of all the

kings of the Cruithne -- has come down to us in the "Pictish

Chronicle." The record begins with the first settlement of the

Agathyrsi in 1040. That is the year they were planted in Northwest

Europe by Odin of Denmark, who led them out of their ancient homeland

in Thrace.

The "Pictish Chronicle" begins with the name of Cruithne and seven

sons, who divided the Scottish realm between them. The entire period

from the first migration in 1040 to the death of Cruithne and his sons

was 100 years. Thereafter the royal line was inherited from the

mother's side, not the father's, in accordance with the original

agreement with the Milesians.

The following chart is taken from the "Pictish Chronicle."

King's Names Lengths of Reign Dates

Cruidne (or Cruithne), 100 1040- 940

son of Cinge (or Kinne),

father of the Agathyrsi

dwelling in Scotland.

The seven sons of Cruithne:

Circui 60

Fidaich 40

Forteim 70

Floclaid 30

Got 12

Ce, that is, Cecircum 15

Fibaid 24

The entire period of Cruithne and his seven sons is contained in

the 100 years assigned to Cruithne. None of the sons' reigns can be

dated. The kingship after 940 was passed on to the following:

Gedeolgudach 80 940-860

Denbacan 100 860-760

Finnechta (Olfinecta) 60 760-700

Guididgaedbrecach 50 700-650

Gestgurtich 40 650-610

Wurgest 30 610-580

Brudebout 48 580-532

"From Brudebout descended 30 kings of the name of Brude, who

reigned during 150 years in Ireland and in Albany," records the

Chronicle. Albany was the seat of authority in Scotland. The following

names indicate that the realm was divided into numerous principalities

-- probably 15 -- over each of which two generations of kinglets


Thirty kings by name of Brude 150 532-382

Brude Gest Brude Uleo

Brude Urgest Brude Gant

Brude Point Brude Urgant

Brude Urpoint Brude Gnith

Brude Leo Brude Urgnith

Brude Feth Brude Gart

Brude Urfeichir Brude Urgart

Brude Cal Brude Clnd

Brude Urcal Brude Urclnd

Brude Cint Brude Uip

Brude Urcint Brude Uruip

Brude Feth Brude Grith

Brude Urfeth Brude Urgrith

Brude Ru Brude Muin

Brude Ero Brude Urmuin

Gilgidi 101 382-281

Tharan 100 281-181

Morleo 15 181-166

Deocilunan 40 166-126

Cimoiod, son of Arcois 7 126-119

Deord 50 119- 69

Bliciblitherth 5 69- 64

Dectoteric, brother of Diu 40 64- 24

Usconbuts 30 24 B.C.- 7 A.D.

Carvorst 40 7- 47

Deoartavois 20 47- 67

Uist 50 67-117

Ru 100 117-217

Gartnaithboc 4 217-221

Vere 9 221-230

Breth, son of Buthut 7 230-237

Vipoignamet 30 237-267

Canutulachma 4 267-271

Wradech Vechla 2 271-273

Garnaichdi Uber 60 273-333

Talore, son of Achivir -- 75 333-408

(Nectanus, a contemporary

Pictish king was slain in


Drust, son of Erp or Irb 45 408-453

Though the "Pictish Chronicle" continues the history of the

Cruithne without interruption, it is important that the list be stopped

here to discover who Drust, the son of Erp, was.



Erp is the Pictish name for the Scottish Erc. Who was this Erc?

Late Scottish historians confused this Erp or Erc with Erc the

father of Fearghus. Fearghus mac Erc reigned 513-529. This was about a

century after Drust mac Erp (or Erc). The two Ercs are not the same

person. This is clearly proved by all early Scottish historians. "In

two particulars at least, none of the early writers have disagreed:

that in the year 503 an invasion of Caledonia took place under the

leadership of Fergus mac Erc, and that he and his followers had come to

stay" ("Controversial Issues in Scottish History", Gregg, page 35).

Then who was the other Erc whose son, a century earlier, returned

to rule over the Picts? The answer is found in the early history of the

Scots who migrated from Scythia in the year 331-330.

In 331 Alexander the Great overthrew the Persian realm. Many

nations who had been held in virtual slavery gained their freedom. One

of these people was the House of Israel. Israel was invaded in 721 by

Shalmaneser of Assyria. After a three-year siege her people were taken

into captivity. Ezekiel, over a century later was given a vision in

which he saw that the House of Israel would not be released from their

enslavement until 390 years had elapsed from the time of the siege of

Samaria (Ezekiel 4:3-5). It was precisely 390 years from 721, when the

siege against Samaria began, to 331, the date of the final overthrow of

Persia and the deliverance out of captivity of the Hebrews. Some of

them immediately commenced a migration to the land settled long before

by their brethren. In the year 331-330 they journeyed out of Scythia to

Scotland -- the word Scotland originally meant the land of the Scyths.

In Scotland they sent to Ireland for a Scythian-Mileslan prince, of the

line of Mileadh, to rule over them. A prince was dispatched, together

with a small army. His name was Fergus, the son of Ferquhard. It was

his family from which Erp or Erc, the father of Drust, king of the

"Picts,'' sprang. Before returning to complete the line of "Pictish"

kings, we shall present a summary of the earliest kings to rule over

the Scots in Scotland. (It should be remembered that Scotland and

Pictland were but two of several early divisions of that land now known

as Scotland.)

This material is taken from Boethus and Buchanan. The correct

outline is that preserved in Anderson's "Royal Genealogies". Buchanan

mistakenly shortens the total of the dynasty 16 years. But Roman

history confirms the longer form preserved by Anderson on page 753.

First Kings of the Lengths of Reign Dates


1. Fergus 25 330-305

He died in shipwreck off

the coast of Ireland,

where he went to quell

some commotions.

2. Feritharis 15 305-290

Brother of Fergus succeeds,

since Fergus' sons are too


3. Mainus 29 290-261

Fergus' younger son chosen

king, the older, Ferlegus,

being condemned for

conspiring in his uncle's


4. Dornadilla 28 261-233

A son of Mainus

5. Nothatus 20 233-213

Dornadilla's brother; his

own son too young to succeed

to the throne. A very

cruel and despotic ruler,

he was slain.

6. Reuther 26 213-187

Dornadilla's son. Dowal,

the murderer of Nothatus,

exercised great influence

over the still young Reuther.

7. Reutha 17 187-170

Son of Nothatus, cousin

of Reuther. Reuther's

brother rules for his

nephew, who is only ten

years old. Reutha

resigned the government

in favour of Thereus his


8. Thereus 12 170-158

Reuther's son. A cruel

and unwise tyrant, driven

into exile in his twelfth

year, Conan elected viceroy.

9. Josina 24 158-134

Thereus' brother. He

greatly honored physicians,

as he had been educated

among them.

10. Finnan 30 134-104

Josina's son. Established

that kings should not

decide on great matters

without authority of the

great council. Ne was

devoted to Druidical


11. Durstus 9 104- 95

Finnan's son. A vile and

debauched ruler. Pretending

to reform his life, he

invited the nobles and had

them slain. He was slain

in the ensuing battle.

12. Evenus 19 95- 76

Paternal cousin to Durstus.

Exacted oath of

allegiance from his subjects.

13. Gillus 3 76- 73

A crafty tyrant, slain by

Cadwal, his viceroy, in


14. Evenus II 17 73- 56

Son of Doval; grandson

of Josina.

15. Ederus 48 56- 8

Son of Dochamus, Durstus'


16. Evenus III 7 8- 1

A wicked and licentious

king; the son of Ederus.

He was put in prison by

the nobles and there

murdered by a fellow


17. Metellanus 29 "1 B.C."- 29 "A.D."

Son of Ederus' brother.

18. Caractacus 20 29- 49

Son of Cadallanus and of

Eropeia, Metellanus' sister.

19. Corbred I 18 49- 67

Caractacus' brother.

20. Dardanus 4 67- 71

Metellanus' nephew. A

cruel and licentious ruler,

he was captured in battle

and beheaded.

21. Corbred II. 35 71-106

Corbred's son. After many

battles with the Romans,

he died at peace.

22. Luctacus 3 106-109

A licentious prince, son

of Corbred II. He was

slain by his nobles.

23. Mogaldus (Mogallus) 36 109-145

Grandson of Galdus and

maternal nephew of

Lactacus, son of the

sister of Corbred II.

Started his reign well

but ended it in the ways

of his predecessor. Was

slain by the nobles.

24. Conarus 14 145-159

Mogaldus' son. He was a

partner in the conspiracy

against his father. He

himself was a lecherous

tyrant, was put in

prison after only 2 years.

Argadus became governor;

Conarus was finally slain

in prison in 159.

25. Ethodius 33 159-192

Mogaldus' sister's son.

He was murdered for

personal reasons by an

Irish harper.

26. Satrael 4 192-196

Ethodlus' brother, the son

was not yet mature enough.

This man murdered the

nobles and friends of

Ethodius, so he could do

away with the sons, in

order to keep the reign

in his family. Was finally

strangled by his own


27. Donald I. 21 196-217

Another brother of

Ethodius. The first

"Christian king" of

Scotland. First to coin

gold and silver money in

the land.

28. Ethodius II. 21 217-238

Son of Ethodius, an

intellectually weak and

base-minded man. Directed

by his nobles, slain by own


29. Athirco 12 238-250

Son of Ethodius. Began

his reign decently, but

degenerated and committed

suicide when pursued by

his nobles. Athirco's

brother, Dorus, flees

from the noble Nathalocus

with the three sons of


30. Nathalocau 12 250-262

A son of Athirco's brother,

he usurped the kingdom; was

a cruel tyrant and was slain

by the nobles.

31. Findochus 11 262-273

A son of Athirco. A

good ruler, he was slain

by his own brother at the

instigation of Donald the


32. Donald II. 1 273-274

Findochus' brother. In

battle Donald is wounded

and dies shortly after.

33. Donald III 12 274-286

Donald the Islander

usurped the kingship

without any right to it,

and ruled very cruelly.

He was finally slain by


34. Crathilinthus 24 286-310

The son of Findochus, who

was hidden for years.

After a long series of

battles with the wild

Picts, and after

purging the land of

the idolatrous superstition

of the Druids and

enforcing Christianity, he died.

35. Fincormach 47 310-357

Crathilinthus' cousin.

A just ruler.

36. Romachus 3 357-360

Son of oldest brother of

Crathilinthus. Obtained

the kingdom by force from

the two sons of two other

brothers of Crathilinthus.

Defeated incursions of the

wild Picts. His murder

ended his evil reign.

37. Angusianus 1 360-361

Son of a brother of

Crathilinthus. Angusianus

was slain in battle with the

Picts' king Nectanus.

38. Fethelmachus 3 361-364

Son of the third brother

of Crathilinthus, Devastating

the forces of the Picts in

battle, they sent assassins

who murdered the king.

39. Eugenius I (Evenus) 12 364-376

Fincormach's son. He was killed in battle against the Romans and

their Pictish allies. The Scottish kingdom was obliterated. The dead

king's brother, with his son Erc, and his grandson, fled to Denmark

where he was received by Sivaldus III. The Scottish population

scattered throughout Scandanavia.

The Romans soon turned on the Cruithne -- who were still dwelling

in Pictland along with the wild Picts. The Cruithne were miserably

oppressed. After three decades they came to an agreement with the Scots

and promised to restore the Scots to the throne if they would deliver

them from oppression. The son of Erc or Erp returned in 408 at the head

of a Scottish army, delivered the Cruithne and restored the throne.

This son of Erc or Erp was not Ferghus, as later traditions assumed,

but Drust, who became the new king of the Cruithne or Picts. Drust was

famous in poetry for having fought 100 battles and lived 100 years. As

he ended his reign in 453, he was born 353. He was therefore only 23

years old at the time of the flight of his grandfather and father.

Before continuing the remarkable history of the wild Picts which

culminated in 503 in Scotland, we should continue with the line of

Scottish kings who now sat on the throne over the Cruithne (or the

Agathyrsi Picts).



Kings of the Cruithne Lengths of Reign Dates

(Drust, son of Erp or Erc 45 408-453)

Talore, son of Aniel 4 453-457

Necton Morbet, son of Erp 25 457-482

Drest Gurthinmoth 30 482-512

Galanau Etelich 12 512-524

Dadrest 1 524-525

Drest, son of Gyrom 1 525-526

Drest, son of Udrost, reigned 5 526-531

jointly with Drest, son of Gyrom

Drest, son of Gyrom, 5 531-536

continues to reign alone

Gartnach, son of Gyrom 7 536-543

Cealtraim, son of Gyrom 1 543-544

Talorg, son of Muircholaich 11 544-555

Drest, son of Munait 1 555-556

Galam, with Aleth 1 556-557

Galam, with Brideo 1 557-558

Bride, son of Mailcon 30 558-588

Gartnaich, son of Domelch 11 588-599

Nectan 20 599-619

Cineoch, son of Luthrn 19 619-638

Garnard, son of Wid 4 638-642

Bridei, son of Wid 5 642-647

Talore, brother of the two 12 647-659

former kings

Talorcan, son of Enfret 4 659-663

Gartnait, son of Donnel 6 663-669

Drest, brother of Gartnait 7 669-676

Bridei, son of Bill 21 676-697

Taran, son of Entisidich 4 697-701

Bredei, son of Derili 11 701-712

Necton, or Naitan, son of Derili 15 712-727

Drest and Alpin reigned together 5 727-732

Onnust, or Oengus, son of Urgust, 31 732-763

or Fergus

Bredei, son of Uiurgust 2 763-765

Kinoid, or Kinoth son of Wirdech 12 765-777

Elpin, or Alpin son of Wroid 3 777-780

Drest, or Durst son of Talorgan 4 780-784

Talargan, son of Onnust 2 784-786

Canaul, son of Tarla 5 786-791

Castantin, or Constantine, son 30 791-821

of Urguist, or Fergus

Unnust, or Hungus, son of Urguist 12 821-833

Drest, son of Constantine, and 3 833-836

Taloran, son of Utholl, reigned


Uwen, or Eogan, son of 3 836-839


Wrad, son of Bargoit 3 839-842

Bred Brude 3 842-845

Keneth MacAlpin, first king 16 843-859

of all Scotland, united line

of Cruithne (or "Picts")

with the Milesian Scottish

line of Ferghus mac Erc.

This completes the history of the Picts who descended from the

intermarriage of the Cruithne and the Judaic Milesian royal house. From

the reign of Kenneth MacAlpin the history of the throne of David has

already been presented in volume I.

But what befell those wild, tribal Picts who gave their name to

the Cruithne -- and who painted themselves? Remnants of them continued

to be referred to as late as the seventeenth century. Most of the

population, however, suddenly disappeared in 503 upon the coming of the

Milesian Scots out of Ireland under the leadership of Fearghus mac Erc.

Those wild Picts were the people who left the many strange and

intriguing remains in the Northern Isles of Britain -- the mounds, the

flint knives, the stonehewn tombs, the carvings. The next chapter

explains the link between Scotland and the New World.




The origin of the American Indian has puzzled Europeans from the

day Columbus' sailors set foot on the Caribbean isle. Yet, just four

centuries earlier, the New World was common knowledge to the educated

in North Europe and the Iberian Peninsula. Its natives were even

embracing the faith of the Roman Church, which had appointed an

Icelander of noble birth as bishop over Iceland, Greenland and the

lands of the New World! How did these facts all become lost?



One is so accustomed to read of "Ice Ages" as events of the remote

past, that it hardly occurs to the mind that thirteenth century

Europeans witnessed a veritable Little Ice Age that completely severed

communications between Europe and the New World. The Baltic froze over.

Vikings ceased to traverse the inhospitable Atlantic. In the New World

the Land of the White Man -- Hvitramanna Land in Icelandic literature

-- lost contact with Europe. Centuries later remnants of their

population were found among the natives which had early traversed the

Atlantic with them.

This chapter unfolds what really happened in Western Europe, and

especially the British Isles and Denmark, from the days of Solomon to

long after the fall of the Roman Empire. It will explain the astounding

chronological connection between the rise of New World civilization and

the sudden flight of tribes out of Northwest Europe.



First, let us immediately banish a myth. White Europeans did not

become Indians by merely settling in the New World and becoming lost!

The American Indians are not the "Lost Tribes of Israel," or Egyptians.

The American Indian looks as he does because his ancestors appeared

that way before they traversed the waters of the Atlantic.

It may come as a surprise to learn it, but Europe and the

Mediterranean world was early -- and comparatively late -- inhabited by

"Red Men." Everyone has heard of the famous Phoenician sailors of the

ancient Mediterranean world. They are known to have traveled far out

into the Atlantic and to Northwestern Europe. The Greeks called them

Phoenicians because that is what they were -- "Red Men." The word

"Phoenician" is derived from the Greek word for reddish dye. The

ancient Egyptians painted the Phoenicians on their walled tombs and on

papyri. Their skin color? Reddish. The Egyptians painted other peoples

of Palestine white and black. They recognized three races of men living

in Palestine in early ages.

Julius Firmicus, an early writer, stated that "in Ethiopia all are

born black; in Germany, white; and in Thrace, red." Thrace was north of

Greece and originally populated by the children of Tiras, son of

Japheth (Gen. 10:2). It was from Thrace that Odin led the Agathyrsi and

other tribes to Northwestern Europe when he founded the Danish kingdom.

Many of the warriors employed by the early princes of western

Europe were fierce, of swarthy skin, naked and often tatooed and

painted. Strabo, the Roman geographer, wrote that areas of Ireland and

Britain were inhabited "by men entirely wild." Jerome, writing in one

of his letters in the fifth century, characterizes some of them as

cannibals: "When they hunted the woods for prey, it is said they

attacked the shepherd, rather than his flock; and that they curiously

selected the most delicate and brawny parts, both of males and females,

for their horrid repast."

In the eighteenth century, Martin, in his volume "Western Islands

of Scotland", remarked that the complexion of the natives of the isle

of Skye was "for the most part black;" and the natives of Jura were

"generally black of complexion," and of Arran, "generally brown, and

some of a black complexion." The inhabitants of the Isle Gigay were

"fair or brown in complexion." The American Indian -- commonly called

the Red Man -- varies from copper brown to almost black, and, of

course, almost white in some tribes.

And the famous literary companions Johnson and Boswell several

times took notice of the swarthy color of some of the natives in the

north and west of Scotland (Croker's "Boswell", 1848, pp. 309-310, 316,

352). "There was great diversity in the faces of the circle around us,"

wrote Boswell; "some were as black and wild in their appearance as any

American savages whatever." "Our boatmen were rude singers, and seemed

so like wild Indians, that a very little imagination was necessary to

give one an impression of being upon an American river."

A writer at the beginning of the nineteenth century characterized

the people of Harris: "In general the natives are of small stature ....

the cheek bones are rather prominent. The complexion is of all tints.

Many individuals are as dark as mulattoes, while others are nearly as

fair as Danes" ("Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal", No. vii, pp.

142, 143).

In "Pennant's Second Tour", 1772, is a line drawing of the wigwams

of the half-breed natives of the Scottish Island of Jura. Here are

natives, like American Indians, living in the remote islands of Europe,

whose last remnants died out as late as the beginning of the nineteenth




The common idea that American Indians had no means of preserving

their history is a fiction based on the assumption that all Indians

were on the same level of culture. Wild, rude tribes there were. But

civilized nations existed too. They carefully preserved, among other

things, the history of their journeys, and the duration of their

habitation in the New World. When the Spanish conquistadors arrived in

the New World they were amazed to find the Maya and Aztecs using bark

paper to preserve history and daily records. It was obtained from the

FICUS, a tree related to the mulberry. Bark was peeled off, beaten with

a rubber mallet, and folded into sheets to make books. In Moctezuma's

palace Bernal Diaz followed an "accountant" who showed him "all the

revenue that was brought ... (and recorded) in his books which were

made of paper which they call "amatl", and he had a great house full of

these books" (pages 184-185 of "The Ancient Sun Kingdoms of the

Americas", by von Hagen). Only a few escaped the book burning of the

Spanish zealots, who sought to wipe out all vestiges of the previous

culture and the lineage of their royal houses.

Some rare codices have been preserved, however. One is the "Popol

Vuh", a sacred book of the ancient Quiche Maya. In it are recorded the

migrations and wanderings of their ancestors. It traces their origin

eastward across the Atlantic Ocean to the Old World. Other Indians had

similar origins of having to cross a great body of water from the

northeast to reach their present land. (Later migrations, once they had

arrived from the east, could take any direction.)

The writer of the Popul Vuh declared: "They also multiplied there

in the East .... All lived together, they existed in great numbers and

walked there in the East .... There they were then, in great numbers,

the black man and the white man, many of many classes, men of many

tongues .... The speech of all was the same. They did not invoke wood

nor stone, and they remembered the word of the Creator and the Maker

The Maya record continues: "... they came from the East ... they left

there, from that great distance .... they crossed the sea" (pp. 181,

183). When they sought to establish their kingdom "they decided to go

to the East .... It had been a long time since their fathers had died

East, there whence came our fathers.' Certainly they crossed the sea

when they came there to the East, when they went to receive the

investiture of the kingdom" (pp. 206-207).

To what line of great kings in the east were these Quiche Maya

journeying? To the successors of the great ruler who conducted them,

about 1000 B.C., to the Usumacinta River in Mexico.



The Mayas claim that their kingdom was founded by a great eastern

ruler named Votan or Oden or Dan by various tribes. He was a white man

who came by sea from the east and settled them in their new land. The

time of their migration, according to Ordonez, was ten centuries before

the present era. This Votan -- who was also worshipped as a god -- was

famous for having himself journeyed to a land where a great temple was

being built.

Do we have a king in Europe, living at the time Solomon's temple

was being built (around 1000 B.C.), who had dominion over the seas, who

was worshipped as a god, and whose name sounded like Votan? Indeed --

Woden or Odin, king of Denmark from 1040-999. He was worshipped later

as a great god. Scandinavian literature is replete with accounts of his

distant journeys which took him away from his homeland for many months,

sometimes years.

Just as king Odin or Danus gave his name to Denmark -- Danmark --

so Odin gave his name to the "forest of Dan" in the land of the Quiche

Indians. (See pages 549 and 163 of volume V, "Native Races of the

Pacific States", by Hubert H. Bancroft.) "Dan ... founded a monarchy on

the Guatemalan plateau" (Bancroft, vol. I, p. 789). His capital, built

for the Indians and their white suzerains, was named Amag-Dan.

Here we have the records of Danish kings, as early as 1000 years

before the birth of Christ, sailing to the New World and planting

colonies of Red Men from Europe in the Yucatan and Guatemalan

highlands. Is it any wonder that it was the Danes, of all nations of

Europe, who continued to communicate with the New World in the days of

Eric the Red? It was the king of Denmark who ruled over Iceland in the

days of Christopher Columbus. Before Columbus awakened the sleepy

Mediterranean world by his important journey across the Atlantic, he

first sailed to Iceland where he obtained information for his fateful


And is it not significant that it was an Icelandic nobleman, Eric

Gnupson, who was consecrated by Pope Pascal II as Bishop of Greenland

and the neighboring regions ("regionumque finitimarum") in 1112? (See

"Conquest by Man", Paul Herrmann, p. 287.)



Tradition universally assigns white leadership to every major

recorded historic migration of the American Indian from far to the

northeast. The later history of Mexico commences with the establishment

of a monarchy by the Toltecs of Mexico. The Toltecs were of white

descent. They led and ruled over the Indians and spoke their languages.

Charnay wrote in the "North American Review", October 1881, "Physically

Veytia describes the Toltec as a man of tall stature, white, and

bearded." A carved head of a "noble Aztec," on display in the National

Museum, may be seen on plate 40 in George C. Vaillant's "Aztecs of

Mexico". The noble Aztec was not an Indian at all, but a Norseman!

Little wonder that wherever the Spanish journeyed they found the ruling

classes much lighter than the people over whom they ruled. On occasion

the conquistadors thought their women as fair or fairer than their

Spanish women.

"The Annals of the Cakchiquels -- Lords of Totonicapan" contains

direct reference to the racial descent of the nobles who led and

governed the natives to the New World.

"These, then, were the three nations of the Quiches, and they came

from where the sun rises, descendants of Israel, of the same language

and the same customs .... When they arrived at the edge of the sea,

Balam-qitze (a native title for one in a religious office) touched it

with his staff and at once a path opened, which then closed up again,

for thus the great God wished it to be done, because they were the sons

of Abraham and Jacob. So it was that those three nations (the "mixed

multitude" of Exodus 12:38) passed through, and with them thirteen

others called Vukamag" -- meaning the 13 tribes. Israel had altogether

13 tribes including Levi.

"We have written that which by tradition our ancestors told us,

who came from the other part of the sea, who came from Civan-Tulan,

bordering on Babylonia" page 170. Page 169 says they ".... came from

the other part of the ocean, from where the sun rises." (Translated by

Delia Goetz; published by University of Oklahoma Press, 1953.)

Was the mysterious Civan-Tulan -- meaning in Indian dialects a

place of caves or ravines -- the region of Petra, where Moses led the

Children of Israel? Petra is famous for its caves. Canaanite Hivites,

mixed with Egyptian stock, dwelt at Petra, or Mt. Seir, at the time of

the Exodus (Genesis 36:2, 20, 24). They lived at peace with the


This settlement of Hivites was a region dominated by Midian. A

high priest who visited the land of Midian and Moab in Moses' day was

named Balaam -- almost the exact spelling in the Quiche-Maya title

Balam used for priests!

The people led by Odin or Votan across the Atlantic to the New

World were not exclusively the sons of Tiras from Thrace; some tribes

were called Chivim, reports Ordonez the early Spanish writer. It is the

very Hebrew spelling used for the English word Hivites, some of whom

once lived in Mt. Seir, the land of caves, near Babylonia! So the

Mexican Indians were a mixed people.



No continuous history of the Quiche-Maya civilization is extant.

We have now to turn to the Valley of Mexico for direct and surprising

connection with the movement of events in Scotland where dwelt the

Picts and the Maiatai (Greek for Maia folk).

From Scottish history, covered in the previous chapter and in the

first volume of the Compendium, it can be established that major

migrations occurred in the years 376 -- when the Scots and allies were

driven out and the Picts miserably oppressed -- and in 503 -- when the

Scots from Ireland drove out most of the remaining wild Picts or

painted men. Where did these folk flee to? Can we establish a direct

connection between these events in Pictland with the history of

migration to the Valley of Mexico of the Toltecs and others in the New


Indeed we can.

The nation of the Scots was utterly driven out by the Romans in

the year 376. The Cruithne and Picts, who remained in the land as Roman

allies, were soon miserably oppressed. Rebellion broke out. The Romans

dealt severely with the fleeing rebels. The Cruithne and Picts besought

and obtained Scottish help to drive out the Romans and their British


Now compare this with the migration of the Toltecs and their white

chieftains to Mexico. The historian of the Toltecs was Ixtlilxochitl.

He reports several migrations over the centuries. But the one he takes

special note of -- for its chronological import -- commenced in 387.

(See Bancroft's "Native Races of the Pacific States", Vol. 5, pp. 209,

214.) The events were these -- a rebellion broke out that led to a

protracted struggle for eight years. The rebels were finally forced to

flee in 384 for protection. After remaining 3 years (to 387) they

continued their lengthy migration. It was now 11 years after the

initial rebellion. Eleven years before 387 is 376 -- the very year the

Romans drove out the Scots and suppressed the Painted Red Men of

Pictland! Is this mere coincidence? Their migration took them over

water and land till they reached Jalisco in Mexico. To do so they must

have landed in the traditional area of the Usumacinta River, crossed

the isthmus, and coasted to Jalisco on the southern extremity of the

Gulf of California. After wandering many years they settled in

Tulancingo. "The third year of their stay in Tulancingo completed ...

one hundred and four years since the departure from the country,"

records Bancroft from Ixtlilxochitl (vol. v, p. 213). (The 104 years

compose two Indian calendar cycles of 52 years each.) It was now 488.

At Tulancingo they remained another 15 years -- to 503. In 503

they migrated to the Valley of Mexico to the region of Lake Texcoco.

What caused them to migrate in 503? Is this a significant date in

Scottish history? Indeed. That was the year the Scots from Ireland

finally settled in Scotland and drove the wild Pictish tribes out of

the country.

Strengthened by a new influx of migrants, the Toltecs journeyed

(in 503) to the already-settled shores of the lake on which Mexico City

now stands. There, at Tullan, for six years the Toltecs lived under a

theocratic republic, each chief directing the movement of his band in

war and directing their needs in times of peace. "But in the seventh

year," records Bancroft, "after their arrival in Tollan, when the

republic was yet in a state of peace and prosperity, undisturbed by

foreign foes, the chiefs convened an assembly of the heads of families

and the leading men. The object of the meeting was to effect a change

in the form of their government, and to establish a monarchy." It was

agreed to accept, as king, a son of a neighboring Chichimec king to be

supreme ruler. "Immediately after the accession of the young monarch"

in 510, "a law was established by him and his counsellors to the effect

that no king should reign more than fifty-two years, but at the

expiration of this term should abdicate in favor of his eldest son,

whom he might, however, still serve as adviser. Should the king die

before the allotted time had elapsed, it was provided that the state

should be ruled during the unexpired term by magistrates chosen by the

people" (pp. 244, 246).

This custom continued firmly established among the Toltecs at

Tullan for many years. Later the practice was discontinued, though the

Mexican Indians still continued to count time by 52 year cycles. The

history of the American Indian from 510 to the coming of the Spanish

has been carefully preserved by Ixtlilxochitl and in the Annals of


Modern writers in previous decades often carelessly discounted the

value of these Indian records. But archaeology is forcing a renewed

respect for the history of the New World as preserved by the native

writers during the earliest days of the Spanish colonial period. The

most readily accessible -- and one of the best works -- on early Mexico

is -- "Aztecs of Mexico", by G. C. Valliant, revised by Suzannah B.

Valliant. Another useful source is Stokvis' "Manuel".



The history of Tullan is the history of the Mayapan culture of

Mexico. Earlier cultures are commonly found, but no continuous history

exists before 510. The Toltecs were not the carriers of the culture of

Teotihuacan, as is often stated by archaeologists (see p. 6 of Penguin

edition of "The Aztecs of Mexico" by Valliant).

The following is a summary of the history of Tullan (or Tula),

restored in accordance with the earliest extant Aztec and Toltec

records. Bancroft's "Native Races of the Pacific States" may be

consulted for the full story of events. It is a treasure-house of


(Note that the "x" in Aztec names is pronounced as "sh.")

Toltec Kings of Tulan Lengths of Reign Dates

according to Ixtlilxochitl

Period of the Tullan 7 503-510

Republic under chieftains


Chalchiuhtlanetzin 52 510-562

Ixtlilcuechahauac 52 562-614

Huetzin I 52 614-666

Totepeuh I 52 666-718

Nacoxoc 52 718-770

Mitl-Tlacomihua 59 770-829

Queen Xihuiquenitzin 4 829-833

Izaccaltzin 52 833-885

Topiltzin I 74 885-959

A struggle with Chichimecs occurred during the reign of Topiltzin.

Topiltzin was forced to flee leaving authority in the hands of the

royal family of Ihuitimal. The confused conditions are reflected in the

joint rulership presented in the next short succeeding chart. The

parallel reigns also indicate that Toltec leadership was divided among

powerful city-state princes in the growing Toltec Empire which spread

itself in the Valley of Mexico.

Toltec Kings Lengths of Reign Dates

Mixcoatl Mazatin 65 804-869

Texcaltepocatl Huetzin 28 869-897

Ihuitimal 28 897-925

(or 36) (887-923)

Topiltzin I 22 925-947

(or 24) (923-947)

The above chart indicates Ihuitimal succeeded his father in 897,

but, according to the Annals of Cuauhtitlan, he replaced the fleeing

Topiltzin in 887. Topiltzin returned in 923. Ihuitimal ended his reign

two years later. Though Topiltzin continued on the throne to 959 (see

first chart), he was succeeded in 947 as follows.

Kings of Tullan Lengths of Reign Dates

according to the Annals

of Cuahtitlan

Matlacxochitl 36 947- 983

Nauhyotzin I 14 983- 997

Queen Xiuhtlaltzin 4 997-1001

Matlaccoatzin 24 1001-1025

(or 28)


Tlilcoatzin 21 1025-1046

Huemac 75 1046-1121

Huemac is another name of Quetzalcoatl (Bancroft Vol. III, pp.

267, 283-4). He was a ramous white man who came from the east with a

religion that banned human sacrifice and used the symbol of the cross.

The name Quetzalcoatl, was originally that of an early Aztec god.

It was applied by Aztecs to any great priest who claimed to represent

the deity. Huemac Quetzalcoatl disappeared and returned on several

occasions during his 75 years, leaving the supreme government, in his

absence, to contemporaries of the royal house. This white priest became

famous over much of the New World. Who was he? And what religion was he


The answer is found by the date of his death 1121. Was there a

famous white priest, with jurisdiction over areas of the Western

Hemisphere who died in 1121?

Yes! Icelandic Bishop Eric Gnupson, whose domain included the New

World! He died in 1121, the same year that Quetzalcoatl did. At his

death in 1121 the Icelandic Thing (Parliament) met to request the pope

that a new bishop be appointed (Conquest by Man, by Herrmann, pp. 286

-287) . The religion of Quetzalcoatl was Roman Catholicism. When the

Spanish missionaries later came to the Indians they were amazed to find

so many parallels to the Catholic religion -- holy water, nuns,

rosaries, the cross, penances and other traditions!

Contemporary with Huemac Quetzalcoatl were the following Tullan


Huemac II Atecpanecatl 35 1046-1081

Topiltzin Acxitl 33 1081-1114

Matlacxochitl Huemac III 2 1114-1116

Veytia gives 1116 as the date of the final overthrow of Tullan at

the coming of the Aztecs (Hist. Ant. Mej., bk. 1, pp. 287-304. ) See

also Bancroft, vol. 5., p. 325.



A major expansion of the Toltecs occurred at the close of the end

of the fourth 52 year cycle -- in 718. In that year a branch of the

royal lineage founded Culhuacan. It suffered a major reverse in the

year 1063 at the hands of the Chichimecs who established a new dynasty

in Texcoco. The following chart covers the kings of Culhuacan until

that defeat.

Kings of Culhuacan Lengths of Reign Dates

Nauhyotl I 50 718- 768

Mixcohuatl Camaxtli 78 768- 846

Totepueh I Nonohyatcatl I

Yohuallatonac I 59 846- 905

Quetzallacxoyatl 49 905- 954

Chalchiuh-Tlatonac I 32 954- 986

Totepeuh II 41 986-1027

Nauhyotl II 36 1027-1063

For five years (1063-1068) the local government of Culhuacan was

in the hands of a Toltec noble Xiuhtemoc, to whom the late king's

children were confided. The year after the defeat, a young son of the

king was placed on the throne under the tutelage of Xiuhtemoc.

Kings of Culhuacan Lengths of Reign Dates

Nauhyotl III 60 1064-1124

Cuanhtexpetlatzin 57 1124-1181

Huetzin 21 1181-1202

Nonoalcatl 21 1202-1223

Achitometl 14 1223-1237

Cuauhtonal 14 1237-1251



Mazatzin 23 1251-1274

Quetzaltzin 13 1274-1287

Chalchiuhtlatonac II 17 1287-1304

Cuauhtlix 7 1304-1311

Yohuallatonac 10 1311-1321

Tziuhtecatzin 13 1321-1334

Xihuitlemoc 18 1334-1352

Coxcox 24 1352-1376

Acamapichtli 12 1376-1388

Achitometl 12 1388-1400

Nauhyotl 13 1400-1413

The central government in the Valley of Mexico now passed into the

hands of the Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan.

Prior to the Aztec dominion, the Chichimecs at Texcoco were a

dominant Indian tribe. Their power commenced with the defeat of Tullan

in 1063.



Chichimec Kings of Lengths of Reign Dates


Xolotl 17 1063-1180

After the era of Xolotl

a new lineage begins.

Nopaltzin 31 1180-1211

Tlotzin Pochotl 35 1211-1246

Quinantzin Tlaltecatzin 59 1246-1305

Techotlala 52 1305-1357

Istlilxochitl 61 1357-1418

(For this king Valliant has

mistakenly dropped out an

entire cycle of 52 years in

his reign.)

Nezahualcoyotl 54 1418-1472

Nezahualpilli 44 1472-1516

Cacama 3 1516-1519

Spanish land in Vera Cruz, native rulers to 1550 continued with

limited authority. During part of the reign of Istlilxochitl, two

tyrants of Tepanec dominated the country. They are below.

Tepanec Tyrants at Lengths of Reign Dates


Tezozomoc 84 1343-1427

Maxtla 2 1427-1429



The Mexican Indians were, at the coming of the Spanish, under the

Aztec sway. Many tribes readily accepted Spanish assistance to aid them

in the overthrow of their oppressive rulers. They had yet to learn that

new oppressors were coming in the guise of deliverers. The following

outline illustrates the gradual rise to power of the Aztecs. The story

of the final overthrow of the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan is so

generally narrated as to need no repetition here. The city was

established under Tezcuecuex in 1202 at the end of the reign of Huetzin

of Culhuacan.

Aztecs of Tenochtitlan Lengths of Reign Dates

Tezcuecuex 33 1202-1235

Huitzilhuitl, called Mexi, 63 1235-1298

after whom Mexico receives

its name.

Culhuacan seized Tenochtitlan. The city again became independent

under Tenoch in 1325.

Tenoch, after whom the city of 11 1325-1336

Tenochtitlan was named.

Tlacotin 1 1336-1337

Teuhtlehuac 12 1337-1349



Queen Ilancueitl 34 1349-1383

Acamapichtli, reigns 8 years 20 1375-1395

contemporary with previous


Huitzilhuitl II 19 1395-1414

Chimalpopoca 14 1414-1428

Itzcoatl 12 1428-1440

Montezuma I 29 1440-1469

Azayacatl 12 1469-1481

Tizoc 5 1481-1486

Ahuitzetl 17 1486-1503

Montezuma II, in his reign 17 1503-1520

the Spanish arrived.

Cuitlahuac 4 months 1520

(murdered on way to Honduras)

The history of the Peruvian civilization must wait until Spanish

history is presented.

Other cities of lesser import have left us a record but those

present here give the chronological outline from which a valid study of

Mexican history can begin.




Who would guess today, from reading Spanish history, that Spain

was, in Old Testament times, one of the most important countries in the

world? That famous Biblical characters as Togarmah and Seir the Horite

and Tarshish made their appearance in this fabulous land?

Today the early history of Spain is virtually unknown. Scholars

treat it in much the same fashion as the history of every other nation

in Europe. Her past -- before Roman rule -- is made to appear a

chronological blank. What little is written before that time mainly

emphasizes broken pottery and similar artifacts.

The real history is vitally interesting. It holds the key to the

settlement of the Peruvian Indian in Latin America. Spain was also the

link between Palestine and Ireland. Whoever controlled Spain was in a

position to dominate the Western Mediterranean.



Until very recent times Spanish writers took pride in presenting

their national history. They were not ashamed of it. Today, in the face

of "higher criticism," Spanish scholars have suppressed the truth of

her beginnings. What once was recognized to be fact is now relegated to

the limbo of myth for no other reason than early Spanish history reads

very much like the Bible!

Early Spanish history does not begin in Spain. It begins far to

the east -- in the lands bordering the ancient Assyrian Empire.

Similarly, the history of the Hebrews of the Bible does not begin with

Palestine, but with the land of the Chaldeans in Mesopotamia. In its

earliest period the history of the Iberian Peninsula is not primarily

the story of the Spanish people at all. It is the history of other

people who migrated through that land, or temporarily dominated it.

Few books in English preserve the history we are now entering

upon. The two works most readily available in libraries are Anderson's

"Royal Genealogies" and the 20 volume "Universal History", published in

1748. The Spanish material is contained in volume xviii.

Our story opens in Asia Minor, in the region of the city of

Tarsus. Paul the apostle was born here. Tarsus was a port first settled

by the children of Tarshish. From Tarsus in Cilicia they gradually

migrated into Spain, where they founded the city of Tartessus. The

earliest homeland of the children of Tarshish in Asia Minor was

originally ruled over by Tubal, son of Japheth. Spanish history begins

with his government at Babel.

The land about Tarsus in Asia Minor long bore the name of Tubal.

The Assyrians, in their cuneiform documents, referred to it as Tabal.

It extended from the area of what is eastern Turkey today into the

Caucasus to the Russian plains.

The most valuable area in the ancient land of Tabal was the

excellent farming and trading region of Iberia in the Caucasus -- the

modern Georgia. From this vast area, the descendants of Tubal migrated

into the Russian steppes. But their subjects, the children of Tarshish,

migrated westward toward Spain. Early Spanish history is in a sense the

story of the Spanish people, but the record of their foreign rulers.

The following outline summarizes the important events preserved of

the early history of the Spanish people beginning from the Tower of




Name of Rulers Lengths of Reign Dates

Tubal 156 2254-2098

Grandson of Noah (Gen.

10:2). Came to power at

Babel. Ruled over territory

in eastern Asia Minor (Turkey)

where Tarshish, the father of

the Spaniards, originally


Iberus, a son of Tubal 37 2098-2061

He gave his name to the

entire peninsula, which

is still known as the

Iberian Peninsula. Later

his descendants migrated

from Spain to Iberia in

the Caucasus.

Eubalda (or Idubeda) 64 2061-1997

Son of Iberus, last of

the line of Tubal to

rule over the children

of Tarshish.

Brigus 52 1997-1945

Son of Mash, the son of

Aram (Gen. 10:23). Previously

settled a colony in Eastern

Europe under Asshur; now

leads a colony to Spain

by sea. An Aramaic large

nosed element may be seen

in the Spanish population

to this day.

The ancient city

of Damascus, Syria, was

named after his father Mash.

Brigus (Brigo) organized

his people into pastoral

units (whence our "brigades"),

which multiplied so rapidly

that colonies were forced

to leave Spain in search

of new homes. Some of his

children from Europe early

carried his name into Phrygia

(Asia Minor). There the

family became associated with

Meshech, brother of Tubal.

Brigo's father, Mash, became

known by the name Meshech

(I Chr. 1:17).

Brigo's family in

Spain soon became associated

with the children of Togarmah,

who next entered Spain.

Tagus Ormah 30 1945-1915

The Togarmah, son of Gomer,

of the Bible (Gen. 10:2).

Late Latin writers split his

name into two syllables, and

added Latin "-us" ending.

Togarmah invaded Italy one

year after his domination of

Spain. Both were yet sparcely

populated lands and afforded new,

hospitable areas. During his

reign he sent many bands to

seek habitations elsewhere,

ultimately passing eastward

into the far northern reaches

of Asia (Ezekiel 38:6).

The Tagus River of Southern

Spain was named for him.

Bet(us), or Boetus, 32 1915-1883

(or 31) (1915-1884)

son of Togarmah; Bet(us)

gave his name to the Bet(us)

river (now called Guadalquivir).

In his day the children of

Tarshish, known as Turditanians,

in Spanish histories, settled

the southwestern part of

Spain. Boetus encouraged

the development of learning.

The children of Betus were

soon forced to migrate

out of Europe, with the rest

of the family of Togarmah, and

at length settled in Tibet -- which

means the plateau of Bet! The

family of Togarmah was superseded

by an invasion from the south.



Having become again a civilized land and wealthy due to changes in

climate and the presence of many gold mines, Spain aroused the cupidity

of Egyptian and other North African nations. Gerion or Deabus, a

Lybian, with many men and ships invaded and conquered Spain and forced

the Spaniards to dig gold for their African overlords. African cultural

elements were introduced. Many Spanish slaves died from overwork under

this tyranny. The history of this period is as follows:

Rulers of Spain Lengths of Reign Dates


Gerion, the giant 34 1883-1849

(or 35) (1884-1849)

Gerion was the seventh

generation from Ham. He

descended through Cush,

Saba (the Seba of Gen. 10:7),

Gog, Triton, Ammon and

Hiarba (compare the last

name with the Biblical "Arba"

of Joshua 15:13, who was the

father of the Anakim glants).

The Lomnini 42 1849-1807

The Lomnini were three giant

sons of Gerion. They were

allowed to continue to rule

in the land after an invasion

in 1849 by an Egyptian army under

Osyris Denis (Dionysius in


Osyris slew Gerion in 1849, upon which part of his tribe took to

ship and sailed to the New World. A tradition found among the Toltecs

of Mexico and preserved by Ixtlilxochitl declares there once were

giants in their land.

Even the date of the arrival of these giants has been preserved by

the Toltec historian. It was 520 years after the flood. (Bancroft

"Native Races of the Pacific States", vol. V, p. 209. ) The year of the

flood was 2370-2369. And 520 years AFTER the flood -- that is, after

2369 -- is 1849, the very year a great battle was fought in Spain

during which Gerion was slain and many of the giants were expelled.

Later Indian tradition records the perishing of these giants in the New

World in a struggle with the Indians.

One of the Lomnini in Spain, meanwhile, was given to wife a sister

of Osyris. A son of the union, Norac, settled Sardinia and built the

city of Norca. Sardinia is famous for traditionally being inhabited by

giants who left the megalithic remains and giant tombs. Early British

tradition also assigns to swarthy giants the building of many of the

megalithic monuments or henges.

To avenge the death of their father, the three Lomnini brothers

conspired with Typhon, brother of Osyris. Typhon assassinated his

brother Osyris.

After the death of Osyris, Hercules appears on the scene. Rather

than drench the whole land in a bloodbath, he challenged the three sons

of Gerion to personal combat -- three against one -- and slew them all.

Hercules then turned the government of southern Spain over to Hispal,

his son and one of his generals, and departed with the bulk of his army

to Italy.

Who were Osyris, Typhon and Heracles of Spanish, Italian and North

African tradition?

Note the time setting. These events are long after the death of

Nimrod (2167) or of Miebis (2037), who was the second Osiris. The dates

of these events correspond to the latter half of Dynasty II in Egypt.

It is the period of the patriarch Jacob. The Hercules of these

traditions has already been proved to be Seir the Horite. In Spanish

history Hercules is often referred to as "Oron," meaning the Horite. He

was a king of Egypt -- a descendant of Horus. He slew the giant

Antaeus, another king of Egypt, records Josephus the Jewish historian.

Who are all these supposedly mythological rulers?

The surprising answer is that they have all been listed in Volume

I -- they are kings of the second half of Dynasty II of Egypt. Notice

the parallels.

Antaeus -- an opponent of Osiris -- was a man of giant stature. So

was Sesochris (Neferkaseker), who reigned 1815-1767. Typhon, the slayer

of Osiris, was pictured as a destroyer in the Greek traditions of this

period. King Chaires (Aka) bore the title "Destroyer." His reign began

also in 1815. Following a war in Egypt against the faction of Osiris

III, he temporarily received the "united kingdoms of Upper and Lower

Egypt and the seal of the accursed one" -- Osiris.

Then who was Osiris III -- the Osiris Dionysius of Spanish

history? None other than king Sendi (the Sethenes of Manetho). His

body, according to the tradition, was cast into the Nile. Reports

Weigall of him: "No trace of the king's tomb has been found; and ... he

seems to have met with disaster at the end" ("The History of the

Pharaoh's", page 136).

And now notice Hercules in this same dynasty. Hercules -- the Seir

the Horite of Scripture -- was renowned for having subdued Libya, and

the vast territories that lie west of Egypt. He was called Heracles

Libycus. Did one of the Pharaoh's of this same period conquer Libya?

Certainly -- Necherophes. Manetho records of him: "In his reign Libya

revolted, but, on account of an unexpected increase of the moon, they

submitted through fear."

Now to continue with the outline of Spanish history. Hercules --

Seir the Horite -- put Hispal his son over the country. He could be

none other than Shobal of Genesis 36:20. It is common for a silent "h"

to appear before Spanish names. The successor to Hispal or Shobal was

Hispan, a grandson of Hercules.

Is there a grandson of Seir the Horite by that name? See the name

in Genesis 36:26 -- Eshban! He was a son of Dishon, another son of

Seir. Now it ought to be plain why Scripture records the genealogy of

this famous man. Without it, there would be no means of understanding

who the rulers of these times were. When we come to Italian history, we

shall see how they link up with the family of Jacob. Meantime, the

history of Spain in chart form is presented below.

Hispal, son of Hercules. 17 1807-1790

He built the city Hispalis,

later known as Sepila, now


Hispanus, grandson of Heracles. 32 1790-1758

Gave his name to Hispania

(Spain) in consequence of

extending his rule (during

his first year 1790-1789)

into central and northern

regions of the peninsula

previously settled only by

wild tribes. He built towers

to control the region of

Gallicia in Spain.

Once again Spanish history has a bearing on the New World. The

attack by Hispanus on these rude tribes in the northern regions on the

shores of the Bay of Biscay is recorded in Toltec history.

Ixtlilxochitl records that a second invasion from the east occurred

2236 years after the creation of man (Bancroft, vol. v, p. 209). Notice

how this figure corresponds with both the Bible and Spanish history.

At the death of Hispanus, Hercules, that is, Seir the Horite,

reappears in Spain and Western Europe in his old age.

Hercules 19 1758-1739

Note that these dates

correspond exactly with

those of his rule in Britain

and Gaul. It is significant

that Hercules' family should

appear so prominently in

Western Europe. They must

already have been driven out

of Mt. Seir by Esau. Hercules

left no heir to the Spanish

throne He was succeeded by

one of his generals.



Hesperus 11 1739-1728

Spanish records declare

Hesperus to be one of the

two captains (not his sons)

who accompanied Hercules in

his original exploits into

Spain. He gave his name

Hesperus to Spain and Italy

which in early times were

called Hesperia Minor and

Hesperia Major respectively.

He was driven out of Spain

into Italy by his brother,

who succeeded him.

Atlas 12 1728-1716

(10) (1728-1718)

Sometimes called Italus.

A brother of Hesperus, the

other captain of Hercules,

a famous astronomer;

dethroned and exiled


Josephus, the Jewish historian, also wrote about these two famous

captains of Hercules in "Antiquities", I, xv. Here are his words:

"Abraham after this married Keturah" -- Genesis 25, "by whom six sons

were born to him ..." Then Josephus names Midian, a son of Abraham,

who begat "Ephas and Ophren," called Ephah and Epher in the Bible. "It

is related of this Ophren, that he made war against Libya, and took it;

and that his grandchildren, when they inhabited it, called it (from his

name) Africa; and indeed Alexander Polyhistor gives his attestation to

what I here say; who speaks thus: ' ... from the other two (Apher and

Japhran) the country of Africa took its name; because these men were

auxiliaries to Hercules, when he fought against Libya and Antaeus.' "

Josephus understood that the two famous captains of Hercules were

the grandsons of Abraham.

Hesperus, who was later exiled in a family quarrel, was the

Biblical Ephah. Atlas, the strong man and astronomer, was Epher. It is

his line that continued to control the western Mediterranean for

several generations.

The late Greek writers at times confused this Atlas, who was also

known from Italian history as Atlas Italus Kitim (because he ruled the

land of Kittim), with another Atlas. That other Atlas was surnamed

Maurus and was the descendant, in Greek tradition, of Japetus and Asia.

Japetus or Iapetus was the Japheth of the Bible. Atlas Maurus is

associated with Spain and North Africa because his people were

migrating from the borders of Asia westward to the New World. The only

son of Japheth whose children left Western Asia and Eastern Europe was

Tiras. Atlas Italus Kitim was succeeded by a son --

Oris or Sicorus, son of Atlas 44 1716-1672

(or 45) (1718-1673)

Anus or Sicanus, son of Sicorus 31 1672-1641

(or 32) (1673-1641)

Gave his name to people whom

he led through Italy to Sicily.

From these Sicani the island of

Sicily was anciently called


Sicileus or Siculus, son of 45 1641-1596

Sicorus (or 44) (1641-1597)

Crossed into Italy. He changed

the name of Sicania to Sicilia.

Lusus, son of Siculus 29 1596-1567

(or 60) (1567-1507)

He gave his name to Lusitania (now Portugal)

Ulus or Siculus, son of Lusus 64 1567-1503

(or 60) (1567-1507)

He was also known as Neptune.

He had great fleets of ships.

Ulus again led an army into

Sicily to aid the colonists whose

presence there was still being

opposed. At the close of his

reign, in 1503, a city was

founded on the coast of Spain

by refugees from Greece. The

year 1503 is the date of a

great devastation in Thessaly,

the flood of Deucalion, in

which many perished. In this

period -- the "neolithic" --

the inhabitants of Thessaly

were culturally like Mexican

Indians ("The Origins of Greek

Civilization", C. G. Starr, p. 17,

footnote) Again notice the

harmony of these records.



Testa 70 1503-1433

A descendant of Triton (thus

related to Gerion), seized

southwestern Spain and called

himself king of Spain.

Romus, son of Testa 33 1433-1400

In his third year "Liber Pater,"

or Bacchus (Iacchus), reduced

Spain to his sway. He was from

the East. His title belonged

to Hesus the Mighty of Celtic

tradition. Hesus was Joshua (Jesus

in Greek). He pursued the

Canaanites and drove them

out of Western Europe

Palatuus, son of Romus 19 1400-1381

Cacus Licinius 36 1381-1345

A native prince who rebelled

and deposed Palatuus in a

year-long struggle.

Palatuus restored 6 1345-1339

In his days Erithrus, king (or 15) (1345-1330)

of Tyre, came to Spain.

Erithree, or Erithrus, king 66 1339-1273

of Tyre

Corgoras Mellicola, son of 75 1273-1198

Erithree He divided Spain

into several provinces.

Hebides or Habis, grandson 49 1198-1149

of Gorgoras (or 64) (1198-1134)


Following the recapture of Troy in 1149 many groups of people,

conquered as well as conquerors, sought new homes. As a result several

areas of western and northern Spain were populated. The Lydians

achieved dominance after 1149 over all the Mediterranean region,

heading the list of Thalassocracies or Sea Powers. Their dominion in

Spain began in 1149. Each of the Sea Powers in turn dominated Spain

until Nebuchadnezzar the Great of Babylon made Spain a part or the

Chaldean Empire for 9 years. After that, the Spaniards of Gades invited

the Carthaginians to come and rule over them. The Carthaginians

remained until expelled by the expanding Roman Empire.



As ancient Troy was the key to control of the Eastern

Mediterranean, so Spain was to the Western Mediterranean. There are

noticeable variations between the two regions that are worth noting. In

volume I of the Compendium, in the chapter on Greek history, the list

for the Eastern Mediterranean appears. Below is the Spanish evidence

for the West, including the Atlantic littoral.

Sea Powers for Western Duration Dates

Mediterranean to 530

Lydians 48 1149-1101


Thracians 86 970-884

Rhodians 20 884-864

Phrygians 26 864-838

Cyprians 39 838-799

Phoenicians 41 799-758

Egyptians 35 758-723

Milesians 29 723-694

Carians 48 694-646

Lesbians 68 646-578

Phocaeians 48 578-530

There is a gap deliberately inserted in this list. It is similar

to attempts elsewhere to expurgate any record of the Pelasgians, who

were the Hebrews of the Kingdom of Israel. The missing item should be

Pelasgians 131 1101-970

This list indicates that the Hebrews became dominant in Spain at

the time the Lydians resettled in the Grecian world in 1101.

The 9 years of Nebuchadnezzar's dominion began in 578 and lasted

until 569, the year his insanity commenced. He gained dominion over the

Mediterranean through the Phocaeian fleets. Nebuchadnezzar established,

as his representative in Spain a long-lived hero named Aganthonius who

ruled 80 years (578-498) to the coming of the Carthaginians in 498.

With this, the early history of the Spanish is restored. Its

important connection with Biblical and secular history is obvious --

and especially so when one remembers that Spanish historians also

mention the 26 years' drought in Spain referred to in Irish Annals.

This was the famine in David's time, and precipitated the establishment

of the Hebrew throne in Ireland.




Nearly everyone has heard of the ancient pagan Greek and Roman

gods and goddesses. But almost no one knows that they were originally

great rulers of Italy.

The whole modern Christian world has been influenced by Roman

Catholicism. The story in pre-Roman times was the same. Instead of

paganism spreading to Rome from Greece, it really spread from Italy to


It was the vogue of the last century to ridicule the myths of Rome

and of Greece. The gods and goddesses were regarded as mere human

inventions -- rigments of the superstitious madness of the ancients. To

admit that they were originally flesh-and-blood human beings would have

been tantamount to admitting the reality of the Bible. For several of

the heroes-made-god of ancient Italy are characters of the Bible.



There is a very special reason that Italy became the home of

religious apostasy in the West. The pagan mystery religions had a very

special problem confronting them in Italy. They had to counter the

teachings of Noah!

Yes, Noah appears as a ruler in the early history of Italy! Noah

lived both sides of the Flood. He knew what life meant. Apart from him

the whole human family would have been wiped from off the face of the

earth. The world's religious leaders knew that if they were to succeed

they must, in some way, counterfeit, in Italy, the teachings of Noah --

just as later they were to counterfeit the teachings of Christ. The

parallel is exact.

To counterfeit Christ, they took Christ's name and labeled their

superstition "Christian." They began to worship Christ. "This people

honoreth me with their lips, but their heart is far from me. But in

vain worship they me, teaching for doctrines commands of men" (Mark


To subdue the doctrines Noah preached, they made a pretense of

following him -- claiming they were doing what he commanded them,

claiming to do it by his authority. And when Noah died they began to

worship him! They called him, in their mysteries, Janus -- the one who

could look into both worlds because he experienced the worlds on either

side of the Flood.


The history of Italy was preserved down to Roman times. Not until

the Middle Ages was it allowed to die a natural death. What could not

be disproved was left undiscussed. The scholarly world soon forgot the

records in its possession. Those who did take note of them began

labeling them as recent inventions -- just as they did the history of

every other nation. Now let us open the pages of Italian history and

see what really occurred in ancient Italy.

The history of Italy opens -- as might be expected -- with human

government beginning at the Tower of Babel. Italian history begins

immediately after the Flood -- with the land without inhabitants for

108 years. The first family to settle in Italy, according to ancient

history, was Gomer. But why should this be so unusual, when one

considers the contemporary history of Spain?

Gomer's children generally passed eastward out of Europe into

Asia. Archaeology traces the movements of the earliest cultures of the

children of Gomer from southern Europe into Asia. (See the previous

chapter on the history of Spain under the family of Togarmah.)

Because Gomer was the earliest hero this side the Flood to

populate limited areas of Europe, it became a Middle-Age superstition

to label all the people of Europe the descendants of Gomer. Most Bible

maps are so labeled today. But they are wrong. In the very first

chapter, on the history of Germany, is proof that Shem's descendants

now inhabit Western Europe. The fiction that Gomer was the ancestor of

these people was deliberately, and knowingly, invented to cloak the

identity of the House of Israel and of the Chaldeans and Assyrians. The

Germans do not want their identity known to the world. Nor do the

Chaldeans. And the House of Israel wants to believe it is Gentile.

Now to continue the history of Italy as preserved to us from the

same sources which give us German, Spanish and early British history.

Patriarchs, Rulers and

Kings of Italy Years Dates

Uninhabited after the Flood. 108 2369-2261

Janus (Noah) plants colonies 33 2261-2228

in Mediterranean. Janus was

also called Vertumnus because

through him the seasons

continue in their cycle.

Noah exercised authority in

the period that both Shem

and Heber appear dominant on

the world scene elsewhere.

Gomer -- his son Ashkenaz 58 2228-2170

(Ochus) succeeded him.

Ochus, son of Gomer. 50 2170-2120

Camese (Ham) 19 2120-2101

Janus (Noah again) 82 2101-2019

Cranus Razenus, son of Janus 54 2019-1965

or Noah -- Shem; the name

means the crowned one, and

father of many races or peoples.

Aurunus, son of predecessor -- 43 1965-1922

Aram -- from whom descended

the Ausonians or Uzites.

Tagus Ormah (Togarmah), son 42 1922-1880

of Gomer. Togarmah augmented

and established a religious

system which came to be called

the "rites of Janus." Here was

an early parallel of the later

pagan attempt to establish its

religion on the world in the

name of Christ. Togarmah

obtained the designation Malot

because he AUGMENTED -- the

meaning of malot -- the pagan

rites. Is it not significant

that those lands most filled

with hideous pagan superstition

are the very areas settled by

the sons of Gomer and especially

Togarmah -- Tibet and

Siberia? The Tibetans acquired

their rites from Italy!

Sicanus, son of Togarmah. 30 1880-1850

His wife was Ceres, who was

worshipped as goddess of

agriculture. It was her ideas

which encouraged priests of

the pagan religion to support

themselves by living off the

agricultural labor of others.

Sicanus left only a daughter,

Proserpina, who was married

to Orcus, king of the Molossi

in Epirus. Thereafter the

government passed to petty

kings or Tyrants.

Reign of Enachi Tyrants. 30 1850-1820

This period corresponds in

part to the time of the African

invasion of Spain. Their

overthrow was recorded in Greek

myth as the war with the giants.

Were these sons of Anak?

Osiris Apis 10 1820-1810

Osyris of Egypt drove out (or 12) 1820-1808

tyrants and reigned in their

stead. He is Sendi, King of Egypt.

Lestrigonians, sons of 45 1810-1765

Neptune, the son of Osiris. (or 43) (1808-1765)

For last ten years of his

reign Hercules warred

against Lestrigo.

Heracles, Seir the Horite 30 1765-1735

in Scripture; called "Oron"

-- the Horite -- in Spanish


Tuscus, son of Heracles. He 27 1735-1708

drilled people in art of war.

Alteus, son of Tuscus. 7 1708-1701

Hesperus, brother of Atlas. 11 1701-1690

Italus Atlantus Kittim. 19 1690-1671

(See history of Spain for his

identity.) Atlas left only a

daughter Roma (or Electra);

she was therefore of the

family of Abraham through

Keturah's son Midian, according

to Josephus and the

records of Spain.

Morges, a prince of the 20 1671-1651

Morgetae in Italy.

Cambon, son of Blasco, called 50 1651-1601

Corito or Corythus. Married (33) jointly (1634-1601)

Roma (Electra) daughter of with Roma

Atlas Kitim; she was the

concubine of a Jupiter. Sammes'

"Britannia Antiqua Illustrata"

is of major assistance in

clarifying Anderson's "Royal

Geneologies" during this

period. See also "Historia" by

Bartholome Gutierrez, page 165.

Jasius 50 1601-1551

A descendant of Jupiter, but

not from Electra. In the year

1601 the throne of Britain

had become vacant and Jasius

was chosen to fill the vacant

throne in Britain. From

Britain he ruled all Celtica

and Italy. At his death the

throne of Britain was separated

from Italy. The royal line

continues in Italy thus:

Corybantus. 48 1551-1503

Corybantus was the son of

Jasius and Cybele. He and

his mother divided Italy into

12 provinces and set over them

12 rulers, after which they

retired into Phrygia. A few

Israelites were fleeing from

Egypt at this period due to

persecution by the Egyptians.

Tyrrenus migrates with 51 1503-1452

Lydians from Asia Minor.

After his reign the unity of Italy ceased. Not until the rise of

the Roman Republic did all the numerous tribes in Italy again become

united under one government. Hereafter the history of Italy is the

story of the Kings of the Tuscans and of Kittim. The history parallel

to the Kingdom of Etruria will be presented after that of the Tuscans.



The story of Etruria or Tuscany is essentially the history of

those invading nations who dwelt in Italy, but were not descended from

Kittim. The people of Etruria were a heterogeneous group of tribes.

Kings of the Tuscans Lengths of Reign Dates

Tharcon I 23 1452-1429

(34) (1452-1418)

Abas 15 1429-1414

(15) (1418-1403)

Olanus 21 1414-1393

(23) (1403-1380)

Veibenus 42 1393-1351

(48) (1380-1332)

Oscus 34 1351-1317

(17) (1332-1315)

Tharcon II 46 1317-1271

(44) (1315-1271)

Tiberinus, expels Pelasgi 30 1271-1241

from Italy in time of

Jabin, king of Canaan.

Mezentius. 22 1241-1219

He was expelled for his

tyranny and fled to Cerytes

during the rule of Tharcon

III. Mezentius afterwards

aided Turnus against Aeneas.

Tharcon III 20 1219-1199

Ocnus Blanor 46 1199-1153

Pipinus 52 1153-1103

Nicius Fesulanus. 47 1101-1054

He expelled the Phoenicians

from the isle of Corsica,

and built the city of Nicea.

Piseus. 52 1054-1002

He is credited with several

inventions. This is the

era of Solomon and world

wide growth in culture and

in foreign trade.

Thuscus 39 1002- 963

Amnus 25 963- 938

Felsinus. 43 938- 895

He built Felsina the

metropolis of the Tuscans.

Bon 28 895- 867

Atreius 27 867- 840

Marsias 18 840- 822

Etalus 39 822- 783

Coelius 21 783- 762

Galerius Arbanus Lucumo 20 762- 742

Lukius 25 742- 717

Cibitus 82 717- 635

Lucumo Clusinus 58 635- 577

King Tarquinus Priscus of (or 38 to the time (635- 597)

Rome wasted Tuscany about of struggle

596, but at their entreaty with Rome.)

a peace was concluded in

584, By this peace they gave

to Tarquin a crown of gold,

an ivory chair, a sceptre

with an eagle at the end of

it, a purple robe embroidered

with gold, a gown and 12 axes,

which Tarquin received with

the senate's consent.

Rhaetus 20 577- 557

He gave name to the Rhetians,

a people of the Alps. King

Serbius Tullius of Rome

triumphed three times over

the Tuscans, who were at

last forced to submit.

Hyellus 44 557- 513

Porcena Clusius 58


Tolumnius Laertes 24 455- 431

Eques Tuscus 40 431- 391

Livius Fidenatus 48 391- 343

Elbius Tuscus 32 343- 311

Turrenus 41 311- 270

A major blow was struck,

beginning in 285, against

Etruria. The king

surrendered his government

to the Romans. So closed

the independent history of

the Tuscan tribes in

Etruria, many of whom now

scattered into neighboring

regions. Subordinate

princes continued as follows

until the reign of Emperor


Titus (Tito) 40 270- 230

Volturrenus 48 230- 182

Cecinna 56 182- 126

Menippus 46 126- 80

Menodorus 36 80- 44

Mencenate 56 B.C. 44 - 13 A.D.

Seinao 23 13- 36

Scevino 33 36- 69

Otho Torentius (the 1 (actually 69

Emperor Otho) ruled only 3

months --

Jan. 15-Apr. 19, 69)



Meanwhile the descendants of the children of Kittim were being

ruled over by descendants of the family of Abraham. The famous woman

Electra or Roma was daughter of Atlas Kittim. Josephus reveals Atlas to

have been Epher, Abraham's grandson. His daughter is called the

concubine of Jupiter (see Icelandic history earlier in this volume),

From Electra, who later married Cambon, came a line of rulers who were

later accounted gods or divine heroes. The list carries us down to the

coming of Aeneas of Troy, recorded in Volume I. All these royal lines

were related to the family of Abraham.

List of Kings Length of Reign Dates

Roma, previously concubine 46 1634-1588

of Jupiter.

Romanessus, son of 79 1588-1509


Picus 57 1509-1452

Faunus 30 1452-1422

Annus 54 1422-1368

Vulcan 36 1368-1332

Marte (Mars) sometimes 23 1332-1309

referred to as Janus.

Saturn, arrived from 36 1309-1273

Crete in 1331.

Picus, sometimes called 34 1273-1239


Faunus the younger. 24 1239-1215

Latinus (Lateinos) 38 1215-1177

The year 35 of Latinus was 1181-1180. Aeneas of Troy arrived that

year (see Dionysius of Halicarnassus, I, 44). In year 38 (1178-1177)

Latinus died and Aeneas succeeded -- by the Roman non-accession year


To conclude the surprising early history of Italy, here is a

slightly different mode of reckoning the earliest rulers. Anderson's

"Royal Genealogies" records, from documents extant in the sixteenth

century, the lengths of reigns from the time of Shem's settlement of

colonies in Europe. That event may be dated from the "Bavarian

Chronicle" to 2214. Gomer 127 (2214-2087); Janus or Noah 45

(2087-2042); Sabatius Saga, a son of Cush who fled Armenia via Germany

to Italy, 31 (2042-2011); Cranus 61 (2011-1950); Arunus 41 (1950-1909);

Malot Tages 38 (1909-1871); Sicanus 30 (1871-1841); Tyrants 38

(1841-1803); Osyris 10 (1803-1793); Lestrigo 33 (1793-1760); Hercules

30 (1760-1730); Tuscus 35 (1730-1695); Alteus 20 (1695-1675); Atlas

Italus Kittim 16 (1675-1659); Morges 9 (1659-1650); Camboblasco 50

(1650-1600); Jasius 49 (1600-1551); Coribantus 41 (1551-1510).

Coribantus and his mother set twelve princes over twelve provinces

and departed to Phrygia in Asia Minor. As Coribantus is otherwise

assigned a total of 48 years (1551-1503), his 41-year reign indicates

that the twelve princes governed the last seven years of his reign





Strange as it may seem, the Peruvian Indians preserved their

history back to Babel. Pre-Inca records specifically refer to and date

correctly the reigns of Cush, Nimrod and Horus, or Gilgamesh! Every

generation of rulers over the children of Tiras are named to the coming

of the Incas. Yet today all this has been lost to public knowledge.



Modern scholars have done little to acquaint us with the true

history of early Peru. In the early centuries following the Spanish

conquest of Peru and neighboring regions, many native records came into

the possession of the conquerors. The assumption that the Incas knew

only how to tie knots in a string to remind them of the past is absurd.

Granted, the 'quipus' -- or knotted strings -- were used.

The Peruvian Indians also painted records of past events. They had

trained priests whose function was to record and repeat the traditions

of the past. The fact that the Spanish did recover the history of the

Peruvian Indians from the beginning is in itself proof that a great

many records were available. No nation which was able to achieve the

architectural wonders of the Peruvian highlands would lack the means to

preserve its heritage.

The modern view of Peruvian history is that it cannot be

established more than a century before the commencement of the Spanish

colonial period. Archaeologists have done amazingly well in recovering

cultural artifacts buried in the ground, but they have thus far been

unwilling to associate what they find with early Peruvian history found

in the authentic Indian records by the conquerors. The slightest study

of Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa's "History of the Incas" would have

confirmed the accuracy of his outline. Archaeology everywhere

substantiates the written record wherever it has been carefully


Sir Clements Markham has contributed heavily toward Inca and

Pre-Inca studies by his two books "The Incas of Peru" and "History of

the Incas." The former contains the list of kings from the beginning as

preserved by Montesinos. It gives just over 100 names out of which

nearly 80% have the lengths of reign preserved. Montesinos did not give

sufficient information to establish every reign, but the list is so

nearly complete that it is not at all difficult to determine

contemporary events between Peru and the rest of the world. The latter

volume preserves an invaluable outline of the Inca period.



Archaeologists are not settled on terminology, but they have

described Peruvian remains rather well. The story begins with an

Incipient Era of hunting and early agriculture. There follows a

Developmental Era that is usually not well divided. It ought to be

expressed in two, rather than three phases -- the Formative and the

Cultist -- to use archaeological Jargon. There is great technical

progress and a widespread religious cult. A complete break ends the

Cultist period.

Thereafter a Florescent Era appears, around 350 B.C., with many

new techniques indicative of a dynamic period. In some ways the level

of the artistic sense, however, does not advance.

Then comes a Climactic Era, commencing shortly after 500 A.D. It

is divided into Expansionist, Urbanist and Imperialist periods. The

Expansionist commences with conquest and political and social

unification. It breaks down into disruption and decadence. Local

autonomy with large centers of population characterize the Urbanist.

The Imperialist is a great military Empire, which was superseded, in

1532, by the Spanish Colonial period.

Archaeologists and historians alike have limited the Inca rule

exclusively to the Imperialist and generally date it around 1440. Had

they read the Inca history they would have found that the entire

Climactic Era, beginning shortly after 500 A.D. belongs to the Incas.

Sarmiento de Gamboa commences Inca rule in 565 A.D. And rightly so. The

history of the Inca royal family corresponds in exact detail, period by

period, with Expansionist, Urbanist and Imperialist.

One objection often presented to such an extensive Inca period is

the unusually long length of life necessitated for the rulers. Several

are over a hundred years old. The argument would be valid if it were

possible to demonstrate that human beings cannot live that long! But

human beings do often live to be well over one hundred years of age.

For example, long after Moses wrote that the life span of man centers

about 70 years, individuals are still recorded as living past 120

years. In those days the Peruvian highlands were virgin, and fit for

vigorous living. In some instances the length of reign is due to birth

of a son in the Inca's old age -- or to a birth of an heir after the

death of a predecessor. History, when confirmed by archaeology, should

be allowed to speak for itself.

Now to illustrate the history of Peru, from the Tower of Babel to

the Spanish Colonial period. Notice that the names of even the earliest

rulers appear in the native dialect. Many of the names are titles or


Names of Peruvians Lengths of Reign Dates

Beginning at Babel

The first 18 are of the

Pirua Dynasty. The

relationship of one to

another is not always


1 Pirua Pacari Manco (Ayar 60 2254-2194

Uchu), the Cush of the


2. Manco Capac I, the Nimrod 30 2194-2164

of Scripture. He built the

first city after the flood.

(Markham, "Hist. of the Incas",

p. 51)

3. Huanacahui Pirua 50 2164-2114

4. Sinchi Cozque 60 2114-2054

5. Inti Capac Yupanqui 50 2054-2004

6. Manco Capac II, is Horus; 20 2004-1984

note that in Inca records

he has same name as Nimrod

does in Inca tradition.



The date 2004 is a remarkable parallel for the return to power of

Horus in Mesopotamia in 2006. Clearly the ancestors of the Peruvians

lived outside Mesopotamia, bordering on the River Tyras. As

confirmation of the exactness of Peruvian material, compare the

following figures which have been extracted from the earliest history

of Burma. Notice the same figure 2004 for Maradzi II. The ancestors of

the Burmese Arakan people were at that time also living in the steppes

of Russia.

Early Kings who Ruled Lengths of Reign Dates

Over People who now from Burmese Records

live in Arakan, Burma (Stokvls' "Manuel")

Marayu, is Cush 62 2254-2192

Maradzi I, is Nimrod 32 2192-2160

The name is derived from

the Hebrew root "marad," to

rebel. A Maradzu is a

great rebel.

Maraonleng 53 2160-2107

Mararwayleng 48 2107-2059

Marabheng 55 2059-2004

Maradzi II, is Horus 33 2004-1971,


Now to continue with the Peruvian Kings.

Figures below

are approxi-

mately the

points of reign

since the

lengths of

reign are in

some cases lost.

7. Tupac Capac -- 1950

8. Tini Capac Yupanqui -- 1900

9. Titu Capac Yupanqui -- 1875

10. Inti Capac Pirua Amaru -- 1850

11. Capac Sayhua Capac 60 1800

12. Capac Tinia Yupanqui 40 1750

13. Ayar Tacko 25 1725

14. Huascar Titu 30 1700

15. Quispi Titu -- 1675

16. Titu Yupanqui Patchacutec I -- 1650

17. Titu Capac 25 1625

18. Paullu Ticac Pirua 30 1600

A new line of kings

commences with Amauta.

The word signifies a

Magian, or priest.

19. Lloque Tesag Amauta, a priest 50 1575

or Magian

Is there not a connection here with the Empire of Sargon and his

sons in Mesopotamia? They had a vast empire, and on more than one

occasion Sargon voyaged across the seas. (See Pritchard's "Ancient Near

Eastern Texts".)

20. Cayo Manco Amauta I -- 1525

21. Huascar Titu Tupac 33 1500

22 Manco Capac III Amauta 50 1450

23 Ticac Pupac 30 1425

24. Paullu Tutu Capac 19 1400

25. Cayo Manco Amauta II 30 1375

26. Marasco Patchacutec 40 1325

27. Paullu Atauchi Capac -- 1300

28. Lluqui Yupanqui 14 1275

29. Lluqui Ticac 8 1265

30. Capac Yupanqui I 50 1225

31, Tupac Yupanqui I 18 1200

32. Manco Auqui Tupac Patchacutee 50 1150

33. Sinchi Apusqui Huarma

Huiracocha 40 1120

34. Auqui Quitu Atauchi 4 1100

35. Ayay Manco -- 1075

36. Huiracocha Capac 15 1060

37. Tchinchi Roca Amauta 20 1040

38. Tupac Amaru Amauta 25 1020

39. Capac Raymi Amauta -- 1000

This ruler instituted certain festivals in his name. He is parallel

with the time of Odin I of Denmark and of Solomon. He was the

mainspring behind the development of what archaeologists call the

Cultist Era. This Era is illustrative of the contact between Old and

New World during certain significant ages.

40. IllJa Tupac 3 --


41. Tupac Amauta 3 990

42. Huanacauri I 4 --


43. Toca Corca Apu Capac 45 960

44. Huampar Xayri Tupac I 32 925

45. Hinac Huillja Amauta Pachacuti 35 900

46. Capac Yupanqui II Amauta 35 860

47. Huampar Xayri Tupac II -- 830

48. Cayo Manqui Auqui 3 820

49. Hinac Huillja 30 800

50. Inti Capac Amauta 30 760

51. Ayar Manco Capac -- 730

52. Yahuar Huquiz, gives his 30 710

name to five intercalary

days added to calendar to

adjust spring equinox

53. Capac Titu Yupanqui 23 680

54. Tupac Curi I Amauta 39 640

55. Tupac Curi II 40 600

56. Huillcanota Amauta 60 540

57. Tupac Yupanqui II 43 500

58. Illja Tupac Capac 4 --


59. Titu Raymi Cozque 31 460

60. Huqui Nina Auqui 43 430

61. Manco Capac IV 23 390

62. Cayo Manco Capac 20 365

63. Sinchi Ayar Manco 7 360

A major invasion occurs in his reign from the Southeast. This

begins the true Florescent Era, as labeled by archaeologists.

64. Huaman Tacko Amauta 5 355

65. Titu Yupanqui Pachacuti II -- --

66. Titu Huaman Quitu -- 325

67. Cozque Huaman Titu -- --

68. Cuis Manco 50 275

69. Huillja Titu 30 240

70. Xayri Tupac 40 200

71. Tupac Yupanqui III 25 175

72. Huayna Tupac I 37 140

73. Huanacauri II 10 130

74. Huillja Huaman 60 70

75. Huaman Capac 40 30

76. Paullu Raymi 19 10

77. Manco Capac V Amauta -- 10

78. Auqui Atau Huillja 35 40

79. Manco Titu Capac 32 90

80. Huayna Tupac II 50 140

81. Tupac Cauri Pachacuti -- 170

82. Arantial -- 200

83. Huari Titu Capac -- 225

84. Huispa Titu Auqui 18 250

85. Toco Cozque -- 270

86. Ayar Manco 22 290

87. Cuntur Roca -- 320

88. Amaru -- 340

From here on

a definite

sequence of

dates is


89. Sinchi Roca 41


90. Illja Toca 62 406-468

91. Lluqui Yupanqui 45 468-513

92. Roca Titu 25 513-538

93. Inti Mayta Capac Pachacuti 27 538-565

This concludes the Pre-Inca Era. Notice that when Montesino's

account is properly begun at Babel it is in perfect harmony with the

time element in the next era.



The succeeding chart illustrates the story of the great Inca

period. It begins in 565. Is it significant that this is the year of a

major movement of peripheral peoples out of the British Isles in the

days of Gildas? ("Ency. Brit.", art. "Cave," in eleventh ed.) The Incas

were of a complexion much lighter than their subjects.

The comments in the following section may be verified in J. A.

Mason's "Ancient Civilizations of Peru", p. 110.

Inca Kings Lengths of Reign Dates

or Until an Heir According

Chosen to Sarmiento

Beginning of Expansionist Period

1. Manco Capac 100 565-665


2. Sinchi Roca 19 665-684

According to Garcilassan's

account this king begins


3. Lloqui Yupanqui 111 684-795

Extended domain to Lake Titicaca.

4. Mayta Capac 110 795-905

Increases realm to Tiahuanaco

and headwaters of coastal

rivers. He is the first great


5. Capac Yupanqui 89 905-994

Troubles develop toward end

of his reign.

The succeeding kings belong to the Urbanist period.

6. Inca Roca 103 994-1097

Near total collapse at

beginning of his reign. He

subjugates areas only 20

miles from capital of Cuxco.

7. Titu Cuisi Hualpa 96 1097-1193


8. Viracocha Inca 101 1193-1294

Wars with Chanca, Lupaca and

Colla. His own capital besieged.

Inca Urcon, dethroned -- --

The succeeding Incas belong to the Imperialist period.

9. Inca (Cusi) Yupanqui

Pachacuti 103 1294-1397

Begins conquests in the

vicinity of Cuzco.

10. Tupac Inca Yupanqui 67 1397-1464

11 Huayna Capac 60 1464-1524

12. Huascar Inca 7 1524-1531

13. Atahuallpa 2 1531-1533

Tupac Huallpa -- 1533

14. Manco Inca, crowned by

Pizarro 11 1533-1544

Xayri Tupac 17 1544-1561

Quispe Yupanqui 8 1561-1569

Tupac Amaru 3 1569-1572

With this restoration, though partly incomplete, the early history

of South America comes into its proper place in World History.




One thousand years of Persian history is missing from today's

history textbooks. Most writers begin their account of Persia about the

time of Cyrus the Great. A few archaeological notes usually precede the

story. But the real history of Persia (or Iran) for a thousand years

before Cyrus has been deliberately removed from history books.



Persia, the modern Iran, like most other nations, has preserved

its history from early times. Traditions and legends have no doubt been

added along the way. But the main framework and sequence of events is

so clearly preserved that no doubt about the facts need exist.

Of course there is a reason why early Persian history is rejected.

It includes several Biblical heroes! That alone, in the eyes of modern

interpreters of history, is enough to condemn any record.

Early Persian history has been preserved not only by Persian and

Arabic writers, but in a few rare translations into modern languages.

Perhaps the most complete is Shea's "Early Kings of Persia." A less

complete account may be recovered from D'Herbelot's "Bibliotheque

Orientale." More complete is the analysis in "Universal History," Vol.


Before recounting in brief the history of Persia, it would be well

to compare, below, the table of rulers from Mirkhond, the Persian

historian, with that of other oriental authors. One is immediately

aware of figures that at first glance seem preposterous. But each one

has significant meaning. They are not all lengths of reign -- several

are based on time lapses since the beginning of important eras. Without

these long figures, it would not be possible to restore Persian


Table of Persian Rulers From Mirkhond From Other

Oriental Authors

Dynasty or Pishdadians or


1. Kajomaras or Cajoumaras 40 560

2. Siamek, a son, slain after -- --

very brief reign.

Kajomaras resumes kingdom -- 30

An interregnum. -- 200

3. Hushang 50 50

4. Tamurash, said to be 30 --

grandson of Hushang

5. Giemshid or Giamschid, 30 30

descendant of Kajomaras

6. Dahak or Zahak (Zoak), -- 1000

an Arab

7. Aphridun, or Feridoun, son -- 120

of Giemshid

8. Manugjahr or Manougeher 120 500

surnamed Phirouz; son of

Irege, son of Feridoun

9. Nodar or Nudar, a son 7 7

10. Apherasiab or Afrasiab, 12 12

descendant of Tur, the

son of Feridoun

11. Zaab, Zab, Zoub, or -- 30

Bazab, heir of the house

of Kajomaras

12. Gustasp, or Kischtasp, -- 30 or 20

son of Zaab

Dynasty of Kaianites

1. Kaikobad 100 120

2. Kaikaus 150 150

3. Kaikhosru or Kaihosru 60 60

4. Lohrasp or Lohorasb 120 120

5. Gushtasp, Gustasp or 120 120

Kishtasp, son of Lohrasp

6 Ardshir, surnamed Bahaman, 112 112

grandson of Gustasp

7. Queen Homai 32 32

8. Darab I (Persian spelling 4 14

of Darius)

9. Darab II 14 --

After him came Iscander Ben

Filoukous -- Alexander the

son of Philip.

The time element at the close of this list is clear. The days of

Alexander the Great have been reached. Darab II is Persian king Darius

III Codomannus. He was slain in 330, after Alexander overthrew his

empire. But most of the preceding names in the table of kings are not

those found in history books. The answer is that Persia's last king was

not a direct descendant of the great Persian kings of history. This

table of Persian royal names is an account of another branch of royalty

-- the family of Darius Codomannus.

Once we know the date of Darab II -- his reign ends in 330 -- it

is possible to restore the whole list, if we just take the figures

exactly as they are. The following chart is the restoration of the

Dynasty of the Kaianites -- combining both Mirkhond and other oriental




The Second Race, or Lengths of Time Dates

Dynasty of the Kaianites

l. Kaikobad 100 1042-942

He reigned 20 years with (or 120) (1062-942)

a predecessor.

2. Kaikaus, grandson of 150 942-792


The 150 years represent the

duration of time since the

death of his grandfather.

3. Kaikhosru, grandson of 60 792-732


He died without male heir.

4. Lohorasp, a near relative 120 732-612

of Kaikhosru

Note that the year of his

death is 612 -- the date of

the fall of Nineveh.

Lohorasp was an ally of

Assyria. He joined with

the Assyrians in their

conquest of the Jews in

Palestine in the days of

king Manasseh. He perished

in 612 in a revolt which

carried Persia from the

Assyrian camp to that of

the Medes and Babylonians.

5. Gustasp, called Hystaspes 120 612-492

in Greek literature.

Nearly 30 years after he

came to power in a revolt

against his father, Gustasp

was involved in a war with

the inhabitants of Turkestan

and Scythia. This is the

struggle which occurred in

584 between Media and Scythia

(see Vol. I of the Compendium).

The long reigns assigned to

this family may reflect the

practice of choosing the

youngest heir. In several

instances a grandson is the

successor. Or the figures

may represent reckoning by

eras and may not distinguish

the separate reigns of father

and son, who may also have

had the same throne names.

6. Ardshir Bahaman, surnamed 112 492-380

Dirazdest -- the long-

handed. He is the

Artaxerxes Longimanus

of history. Here again

the assigned length extends

beyond the life of the king,

and is in fact the practice

of reckoning in eras.

7. Queen Homai daughter of 32 380-348

Ardshir according to most

Persian authors.

8. Darab I, her son, say the 4 348-344

eastern traditions, by her (or 14) (358-344)

own father. The date 358

is that of Artaxerxes III

Ochus of history texts.

9. Darab II, slain in 330 14 344-330



Persian historians commonly refer to the early judges and kings of

their land as the "first race" and the "second race." The second has

just been restored. The first is now possible to date. Its last king or

Judge, Gustasp, ended his reign in 1042, at which time he was succeeded

by Kaikobad of the "second race." With 1042 as ending date, the reign

of Kajomaras would begin in 1741. Observe how all these figures fit as

pieces of a puzzle.

The First Race of Lengths of Time Dates

Persian Rulers

1. Kajomaras, a descendant 40 1741-1701

of Aram (560) (2261-1701)

What occurred in 2261? What

era does this mark? It is

108 years after the flood.

Now check Italian history.

There we notice that 2261 is

the date when Noah began to

send out colonies to inhabit

new areas of the world. This

separation of the land to

various families and races

is what Nimrod rebelled

against. So Persian history

confirms what has already

been established from ancient

Italian records preserved

among the Etruscans.

Note that 1741 marks the end of the sole reign of Senwosre III or

Sesostris, the great Egyptian conqueror of the Near East -- including


2. Siamek

Shortly after ascending the

throne he was slain (1701).

Kajomaras returns to power 30 1701-1671

After Kajomaras no supreme rulers in Persia are recorded for a

space of 200 years -- 1671-1471. This period of Interregnum has an

important bearing on the history of the Tatars. And also on Assyria

(see Vol. I of Compendium).

3. Hushang, surnamed Pishdud 50 1471-142I

(meaning judge). Hushang

began the Dynasty of judge-

kings -- the Pishdadians,

Who was this man? His

Persian name -- Hushang --

would be Husham in Hebrew.

Is there in the Biblical

record a Husham living

about the time of Moses

and Joshua? Indeed there

is! Turn to the record in

Genesis 36:31 and 34: "And

these are the kings that

reigned in the land of Edom,

before there reigned any king

over the children of Israel

of Temani reigned ...." This

Husham or Hushang, famous

in the Biblical record, is

the Temanite king who ruled

over the children of Esau or

Edom. His native land was in

Persia -- proving how early

certain of the children of

Esau were moving out of the

land of Edom by the Red Sea

into the land of Persia and

Turkestan, Husham was king

over the widely scattered

tribes of Edom. He was the

great ruler who ordered Moses

not to cross his territory in

the year 1448-1447.

But Husham's is not the

only name that will appear

in Persian history from this

list in Genesis 36.

4. Tahmurash 30 1421-1391

5. Giemshid 30 1391-1361

6. Dahak, a famous man out of

Arabia who came to power in

the last years of Giemshid.

He drove the latter into

exile, hunted him down when

he discovered Giemshid had

a son, and finally slew him.

What do the 1000 years represent?

There is only one possible

explanation. He came to the

Persian throne 1000 years

after the Flood -- 2369-1369.

In 1369 he drove Giemshid

from the throne. The time

of Dahak's power in Persia is

therefore 8 years -- 1369-

1361. In 1361 a son of

Giemshid, now three years old,

came to the throne with the

death of Dahak.

7. Alphidun 120 1361-1241

The new king lived 123 years.

He married the daughter of

Dahak. He divided his realm

between his sons. To Tur he

gave Turkestan. To Irege,

son of a Persian woman,

the realm of Persia was

assigned. From Tur the

Temanite inhabitants of

Turkestan took the name

Turan or Turk. In the family

quarrels which followed, all

the sons of Alphidun were

slain, and the kingship

passed to Manougeher, son

of Irege.

8. Manougeher, surnamed Phirouz 120 1241-1121

From him the people of Iran

called Persians. Phirouz

is the Perses of Greek tradition

who lived at the time

of the war with Troy!

But what of the figure

500? Answer: Manougeher

came to power in 1241,

exactly 500 years after

Kajomaras came to the

royal estate -- 1741-1241.

9. Nodar 7 1121-1114

10. Apherasiab 12 1114-1102

He was a great Khan of

Turkestan, a descendant of

Tur, and joined Persia with

Tartary. Constant rebellion

led at length to the establishment

of a descendant of Kajomaras

on the Persian throne.

11. Zaab or Bazab 30 1102-1072

Who was this Zaab? Turn to

Genesis 36:39. Hadar, king

of Edom, married "Mehetabel,

the daughter of Matred, the

daughter of Me-zahab" ("Jewish

Publ. Soc."). (Mezahab is

the KJV spelling.) Bazab is

but an altered and shortened

spelling of the Hebrew

Me-zahab (the letters "b"

and "m" being easily

interchangeable in Indo

European tongues -- cf.

Emher for Eber in Irish).

Hadar is the last king in Edom

who began to reign before Saul.

The chronology of Persia is

in perfect harmony with the

Biblical account.

Here again is proof that

the Bible is the foundation of

knowledge. Without the list

of rulers of Edom in Genesis 36,

it would not be possible to

understand fully who the early

rulers of Persia were.

12. Gustasp or Kischtasp 30 1072-1042

The 20 years of certain (or 20) (1062-1042)

oriental writers is the

duration of the joint reign

with Kaikobad. Persian

historians declare that

Kishtasp was the son of a

Jewess of the tribe of

Benjamin. This was the

very time of the dominance

of Benjamin in Israel -- and

especially the family of Kish,

the father of Saul. The reign

of Gustasp was put to an end

by struggles with Apherasiab

of Turkestan. In this time

of national struggle, an heir

of the line of Nodar and Zaab

established Persian independence

from the Turks and founded the

Dynasty of the Kaianites or

the "second race" of Persian


And that restores the amazing 1000 years of missing Persian




In the vast stretches north of Persia live a medley of peoples.

Mongols, Tatars, Turks, Turkomen, and Persians, among many others. The

history of this area is intimately connected with ancient Persia. The

nomadic tribes inhabiting the region have not preserved any

chronological framework of their past history, but their line of great

Khans has sufficient parallels that the main events of Turkestan or

Eastern Scythia may be ascertained.

The Bible labels this vast area the land of Gog (see Ezekiel 38).

Gog was a descendant of Japheth. The western half of these vast reaches

belongs today to the Soviet Union. The eastern part is Mongolia and a

part of China (Sinkiang Province). The whole area is called Turkestan

by geographers.

The word Turk has in the Turkic or Mongolian languages the meaning

of "strong warrior." The Mongoloid Turkic people trace their ancestry

back to Turk, the adopted son of Japheth. (The Mongoloid Turks are to

be distinguished from the Caucasian Osmanli Turks of modern Turkey --

the sons of Teman who acquired the name Turk from living in that

geographic area.) The son of Turk in Tatar history was Taunak Khan.

(Khan means ruler.) He was, at least in part, an earlier contemporary

of Kajomaras of Persia. Taunak is affirmed to have lived 240 years,

according to Abu'l Ghazi Bahadur Khan's "Genealogical History of the

Tatars," published in 1730 in London. This is well within the ages

listed in Genesis for the patriarchs immediately after the Flood.

Taunak was succeeded in order by Jelza Khan, Dibbakui Khan and

Kajuk Khan -- the latter two having long reigns. The son of Kajuk was

Alanza Khan or Ilingeh Khan. His was a period of growing prosperity and

luxury. He was the father of Tatar Khan, from whom the Tatars trace

their name, and of Mogul Khan, from whom the Moguls or Mongols trace

their name.

The son of Mogul Khan was Kara Khan. In his day there was a rapid

spread of idolatry, declare the Mohammedan Tatar historians. Hushang of

Persia was ruler in Persia.



In the days of Kara Khan, after the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt,

his son Oguz or Ogus Khan revolted against the idolatry of his father

(see the "Universal History", Vol. XX). Later, Ogus, after 72 years of

war, created a vast Mongol Empire. He subjected Cathay (part of China),

Tashkent, Samarkand and all Turkestan, Kashmir, part of Armenia and

Iran. Iran at this time was without unified leadership during the reign

of Giemshid (1391-1361). Oguz Khan carried his conquests (Diodorus of

Sicily II, 43) to Egypt. Interestingly, this is the time of the Hyksos

rule in Egypt. And one of the Hyksos rulers had the name of Khayan or

Khan. This king could be none other than Oguz Khan. His 116 year reign

from Tatar history is therefore 1392-1276.

Ogus Khan was succeeded by Kiun Khan (1276-1206). His name means

the "sun". The history of Persia indicated that hereafter the kings of

Persia dominated the accessible steppes of Turkestan. This would be the

time of Alphidun, who set his son Tur over Turkestan. He was followed

by Apherasiab. In order there followed Juldus Khan, Mengli Khan, Tengis

Khan and Il Khan. In the days of Il Khan (in the 600's B.C.) the

Tatars warred against the Mongols and nearly obliterated them. Il had a

son Kajan who survived the struggle. For 400 years the Mongols

disappear from the pages of Tatar history into the vastnesses of the

mountains of Asia.

Now to return to the time of Alanza Khan and his son Tatar Khan.

The Tatars in the Soviet Union trace their early Khans from Tatar the

brother of Mogul. From Tatar descended Buka, Jalanzak and Ettala Khan.

Ettala's son Attaisis Khan fought bloody wars -- in the days of Ogus

Khan of the Mongols. He was followed by Orda, Baydu and Siuntz Khan.

The latter in a grand alliance destroyed the Mongol power.

After this great victory the Tatars split up under petty rulers

and have left us but few names of their rulers. Based on the number of

generations this victory over the Mongols occurred in the 600's.

After multiplying in the mountains bordering on Mongolia, the

Moguls finally rose to power in the late 200's. In another fifty years

they challenged the Tatars, conquered them and became the masters of

much of eastern Scythia.

The Tatars and Mongols - descendants of Turk whom Japheth adopted

as his son - preserved for posterity the names of over 20 Khans (see

Vol. XX of "Universal History") who ruled Mongolia and adjacent

territory until the twelfth century of the present era, Then it was

that the Mongols burst forth on the world, ravaged Asia and plunged

with terrible swiftness west into the heart of Europe under Jenghis




The principal source of Armenian history is that of Moses Khoren,

a celebrated writer of the fifth century. In part his material is

derived from the books of Mar-Abas Catina, a learned Aramean of the

second century B.C. Modern archaeology provides additional information

beginning with the period of the late Assyrian Empire.

Armenian history has been treated in much the same manner as

Persian history. Prior to the Assyrian period all is rejected without

being examined to see if it corresponds with the parallel accounts of

other nations.

Armenian history begins with the account of Haik or Haig, the son

of Togarmah, the son of Gomer. What's wrong with Biblical characters

suddenly appearing on the scene shortly after the Flood? Nothing --

unless one doesn't want to acknowledge the plain facts of the Bible and

history. Historians acknowledge the land about Armenia, as late as the

days of Shalmaneser the Great, was known as the land of Togarmah. of

course, that is from archaeology!

Armenians descend from Aram, son of Shem (see Josephus).

Intermarriage between Togarmah's family and Aram's has undoubtedly

given rise to the unique character of the Armenians.

The following tables, prepared by Michael Chamich and St. Martin,

are taken from the "Collection des Historiens Anciens et Modernes de

l'Armenie" by Victor Langlois, Paris, 1880, vol. II, pp. 385-386.


Kamer, Gomer, 37 2178-2141 Armais 40 1816-1776

son of Japheth

Togarmah 198 2141-1943 Amassia 32 1776-1744

Haik 81 1943-1862 Gegham 50 1744-1694

Armenak 46 1862-1816 Harma 31 1694-1663

Armenak, declares Issaverdenz, "with a large body of his people,

advanced a few days journey to the northeast," and colonized a new area

of the Armenian plateau. (Page 56 of "Armenia and the Armenians," Vol.


The family of Aram paralleled the family of Togarmah, rather than

succeeding it as most Armenian historians claim.

Aram, son of 58 2108-2050


Aram "was the first to raise the Armenian name to any degree of

renown." One of his "followers" was Mishag or Mishak. Certainly here we

have the family of Aram and his son Mash or Meshech of the Bible.

Ara the Handsome 26 2050-2024

Semiramis, Queen of Assyria, offered to marry Ara. He refused. And

in an ensuing battle between the Assyrians and Armenians, Ara perished.

Semiramis raised Garthos to the throne in his father's stead. Sometimes

his name is spelled Kardos.

During his day Semiramis and Ninyas struggled for the throne in

Assyria. She fled to the Armenian king. Out of gratitude for having

been placed on the throne, he raised an army and marched with Semiramis

against Ninyas Zames. Both Kardos and Semiramis were slain and Ninyas

came to the throne in 2006 in Assyria.

Kardos, called 18 2024-2006

Ara Araian

Anoushavan 63 2006-1943

Anoushavan had no heir to the throne; submits to Assyria as do his

successors; he is succeeded by Haik in 1943.

Paret 50 1663-1613 Geghak 30 1228-1198

Arbak 44 1613-1569 Horo 3 1198-1195

Zavan 37 1569-1532 Zarmair, 12 1195-1183

slain by Achilles

Pharnas I 53 1532-1479 Interregnum 2 1183-1181

Sour 45 1479-1434 Shavarsh II 43 1181-1138

Havanak 30 1434-1404 Perch I 35 1138-1103

Vashtak 22 1404-1382 Arboun 27 1103-1076

Haikak I 18 1382-1364 Perch II 40 1076-1036

Ampak I 14 1364-1350 Bazouk 50 1036- 986

Arnak 17 1350-1333 Hoy 44 986- 942

Shavarsh I 6 1333-1327 Houssak 31 942- 911

Norair 24 1327-1303 Ampak II 27 911- 884

Vestam 13 1303-1290 Kaipak 45 884- 839

Kar 4 1290-1286 Pharnouas I 33 839- 806

Gorak 18 1286-1268 Pharnas II 40 806- 766

Hrant I 25 1268-1243 Skaiordi 17 766- 749

Endzak 15 1243-1228



Parouyr, 48 749- 701 Haikak II 36 606- 570

frees Armenia from Assyria

Erouand I 4 570- 566

Hratchia 22 701- 679

Tigran I 45 566- 521

Pharnouas, 13 679- 666

the second Vahagn 25 521- 496

Pachouych 35 666- 631 Aravan 20 496- 476

Kornak 8 631- 623 Nerseh 35 476- 441

Phavos 17 623- 606 Zarah 46 441- 395


Armog 9 395- 386 Neoptolemus 2 323- 321

Bagam 14 386- 372 Hrant II, or 4 321- 317

Orontes, subject to Greeks

Van 20 372- 352

Ardoates 33 317- 284

Vahe 23 352- 329

(20) (352-332) Hrant II, or 45 284- 239

died in war with Alexander Orontes

the Great

Artavazanes 50 239-189

Mihram 6 329- 323

a Persian appointed by Artaxias 30 189-159


Artavazd 10 159-149

Kurkjian's "History of Armenia" may be consulted for succeeding


Armenian history commences with a settlement of colonists in 2247,

seven years after the episode at Babel. These colonists were subject to

the rulers in Babylonia for 139 years. They gained their independence

in 2108. This date is traditionally assigned to Haik, but rightfully

belongs to Aram. Armenian history clearly places the family of Aram

contemporary with Semiramis and Ninyas. Since Togarmah settled Armenia

earlier than Aram, the line of Aram was inserted after the line of

Gomer. It should have been made parallel. The family of Gomer continued

down to the time of Paret in 1663. Note that the period assigned to

Gomer and Togarmah in Armenian history corresponds with Italian and

Spanish history. The white branch of the family was settling in Europe,

while the Oriental branch migrated eastward.

It appears that Ul, the son of Aram who settled Armenia, is Ara --

the "r" replacing the "l".




After Troy fell, in 1181, the populace in the conquered regions

fled from the Greeks to various parts of Europe. One of these groups

was led by Aeneas and finally reached Italy. But, there were other

groups who left Troy after the First Trojan War.

Another group of Trojan refugees was led by Francio the son of the

ill-fated Hector, and heir to the line of Samothes in Gaul. These fled

to the northern shore of the Black Sea, then returned to Isauria in

Asia Minor, from where they migrated to Pannonia and then on to Western

Europe. From these Trojans is descended the house of the Dukes of

Brabant (an old province embracing parts of modern Belgium and the

Netherlands). From this Assyro-Judaic family came Charlemagne, the

first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.

A complete list of these Trojan rulers, from Hector down to

Charlemagne, is found in the work by Jhr. C. A. Rethaan Macaré entitled

"Oude Kronijk van Brabant", in the "Codex Diplomaticus Neerlandicus,"

series 2, part 3, published by Het Historisch Genootschap te Utrecht,

Utrecht, Holland in 1855.

The chronology starts with 1181 and continues right down the line

without complications till Silvius Brabon II, who begins to reign in

732. The beginning and end of each reign is synchronized with

contemporary Biblical history, which, incidentally, is presented in its

correct chronology down to a period long after the dividing of the


Between Silvius Brabon II and Troylus II (370-331) complications

are introduced. The author will state a certain figure for the length

of the reign, yet this will completely disagree with the length of

reign obtained through his cross references to contemporary Roman

history. Silvius Brabon II, for example, is stated to have reigned 60

years. Yet, the cross references of the beginning and end of his reign

in terms of Roman history show that he reigned only 32 years. The

difficulty is readily overcome when we realize that the Trojan rulers

of this period shared the throne jointly with either a successor or a

predecessor. The author preserved the correct lengths of individual

reigns only in the cross references to contemporary Roman history.

Charlemagne, too, it must be remembered, ruled jointly with his


The recording of joint reigns ceases after Troylus II and the

chronology again becomes uniform. Troylus II ruled jointly with his

successor, Priamus VI. It will be noticed, below, that even in the

figures for his sole reign, the last year overlaps with the first year

of his successor. This is stated in the author's cross references to

contemporary Roman and Greek history.

Under the Princes and Dukes of Brabant there are two short

interregnums which become apparent from the chronology, one in A.D.

456-459 and the other in A.D. 714-715. We must remember that this is

the story of Brabant though the individuals concerned had other

dominions and offices as well. Charlemagne, for example, was a Duke of

Brabant, but he was also King of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor at

the same time. The short interregnums therefore mean nothing more than

that the title to the dukedom was vacant for that period of time. The

ruler himself was usually alive, but simply did not claim the dukedom.

This is only a matter of internal politics and does not affect the

chronology of the history as a whole.



Kings Length of Reign Dates

1. Francio, son of Hector, 21 1181-1160

flees from Troy with

his brother Turcus to 10 1160-1150

Maeotis, where they

rule 21 years. From

there they migrate to

Isauria, where Francio

drives out his brother

Turcus and reigns 10


2. Hector II, marries 31 1150-1119

daughter of king of


3. Troylus 56 1119-1063

4. Francio II, whose brother --

Priam led a migration

of Trojans from Isauria

to Pannonia, where they

remained till expelled

by Gratian.



Kings Length of Reign Dates

1. Priamus II, son of 27 1063-1036

Francio II, commences

his reign on the Danube

in the 118th year after

the fall of Troy,

builds city Sycambria.


2. Eneas, marries his 57 1036- 979

aunt, the daughter of

Francio II of Isauria.

3. Priamus III, had a 14 979- 965

Scythian wife.

4. Silvius Brabon, had six 49 965- 916

sons. Wandalus settled

among the Vandals, Polex

gave his name to Poland,

Russo went into Russia,

Himus migrated to

Maeotis, Frixius went to

Frisia, and Brabon

Silvius inherited his

father's throne.

5. Brabon Silvius I 35 916- 881

6. Hector III, in whose 34 881- 847

days six Sicambrian

heroes or rulers,

led by one Yber,

migrated overland from

Sicambria to France

with about 4000 men.

They built a city and

called it Paris, after

the son of Priam.

Themselves they called


7. Francio Brabon, had 76 847- 771

a son Troylus and

a daughter Ylia.

She became, according

to the author, the

mother of Romulus and



8. Troylus I 32 771- 739

9. Brabon II 7 739- 732

10. Silvius Brabon II 32 732- 700

joint (60) (732- 672)

11. Hector Brabon, had 37 700- 663

two sons, Demophon

and Palamides.

Demophon went to Rome

where he married the

daughter of Ancus

Marcius and had by her a

son called Tarquinus,

who became king of Rome.

12. Palamides, had three 52 663- 611

sons, Deyphebus, joint (61) (672- 611)

Parriis and Brabon.

Deyphebus went to

Dacia, Parriis to some

islands in the Pontus.

13. Brabon III, had two sons, 57 611- 554

Priam and Dyomedeus. The

latter went to Africa

and built there a

mighty city.

14. Priamus IV 32 554- 522

joint (50) (572- 522)

15. Philymeus,had three 30 552- 522

sons, Priam,

Archadius and Macedo.

From Macedo came the

Macedonii, Archadius

migrated to Arcadia

in Greece and became

the first duke of

that land. Julius

Caesar is descended

from him.

16. Priamus V 20 522- 502

17. Brabon IV 50 502- 452

joint with son (11) (452- 441)

18. Laomedon 24 452- 428

19. Pelius, had two 58 428- 370

sons, Troylus and joint (68) (441- 373)

Hybertius. The

latter sailed with

his followers to

Hybernia (Ireland).

20. Troylus II 39 370- 331

joint (42) (373- 331)

21. Priamus VI 7 332- 325

22. Francio III 9 325- 316

23. Brabon V 4 316- 312

24. Silvius Brabon III 21 312- 291

25. Brabon Troylus VI 33 291- 258

26. Brabon VII 22 258- 236

27. Brabon VIII 16 236- 220

28. Priamus VII 28 220- 192

29. Hector IV 31 192- 161

30. Brabon IX 4 161- 157

31. Priamus VIII 19 157- 138

32. Francio IV, had 14 20 138- 118

sons and 7 daughters.

With him the account

of the kings of

Sycambria and

Pannonia ceases, although

the line continued

to reign till the

time of Gratian.

"Brabon junior," the youngest son of Francio IV. He entered the

services of his relative the duke of Arcadia in Greece, and was

rewarded for his distinguished service with a wife of noble birth. Ten

years after the death of his father, his wife gave birth to a son who

was named Brabon Silvius. At the same time Julius Caesar was born to

the duke of Arcadia.

"Brabon Silvius" accompanied Julius Caesar in the Roman conquest

of Gaul. Julius Caesar conquered the kingdom of Agrippina (Cologne),

killed the king, and sent the king's sister Silvana to his father the

duke of Arcadia.

At that time there stayed with the duke of Arcadia a man named

"Karolus." His father, also called Karolus, was a powerful figure and

leader of a military division at Nijmegen. He was born of the old

Trojan line, being the son of a certain Pharamunt who had 14 sons. This

must be none other than Francio IV (138-118).

"Karolus," the son of Karolus, received a bad reputation because

of his licentious life. So his father sent him away from home to the

duke of Arcadia. Here, according to the Chronicle, he married the

duke's daughter "Zwana," who, upon their return to the Low Countries,

gave birth to a son called "Octavianus". This Octavianus later became

Roman Emperor Augustus.

Karolus junior also had two daughters, Octaviana and Zwana. Zwana

was given by her uncle Julius Caesar in marriage to Brabon Silvius.

After the death of Karolus, Julius Caesar adopted Octavianus. The

kingdom of Agrippina he gave to Brabon Silvius.



King Length of Reign Dates

1. Brabon Silvius

2. Karolus I 91 B.C. 53- 39 A.D.

3. Karolus II 41 39- 80

4. Karolus III 65 80- 145

5. Karolus IV 10 145- 155

6. Karolus V 105 155- 260

7. Karolus VI 3 260- 263

8. Karolus VII, conquered 62 263- 325

Sweden, Norway, Denmark

and Ireland.

9. Brabon 41 325- 366

10. Karolus VIII 12 366- 378

11. Angisus, during whose

reign, in 378 A.D.,

Gratian drove the

Sycambri from Pannonia.

They came to the lower

Rhine under their leader

Priamus. Angisus fought

Gratian, but lost 30,000

men and was captured.

He spent seven years as

a captive of the Romans,

being finally liberated

by Theodosius upon the

latter's accession to

the throne. Maximus, a

rival emperor, devastated

parts of northern Gaul,

and then gave these to

Brabon, the six-year-

old eldest son of Angisus.

This Brabon thus became

the first prince of

Brabant, and his

position was subsequently

recognized by Emperor

Theodosius. Angisus

had another son, Karolus,

who succeeded him in the


12. Karolus IX was succeeded

by two other kings who

are not named. The last

was driven out by Franks,

who took over the kingdom

of Agrippina and made it

part of the Frankish realm.



Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Brabon I, was made 32 424- 456

prince of Brabant in

the seventh year of

his life. He reigned

for 32 years after the

death of his father.

In his days Clodius,

king of the Franks,

destroyed the kingdoms

of Agrippina and

Thuringia, and annexed

Brabant. Brabon and

his descendants became

loyal servants of the

Frankish kings. (456- 459)

2. Brabon II 60 459- 519

3. Brabon III 51 519- 570

4. Karolomannus, the last 45 570- 615

prince. After his death

Brabant became a dukedom.



Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Pippinus of Landen, (35) (612- 647)

ruled three years jointly or 32 615- 647

with his father, becomes

mayor of the palace to

the Frankish king.

2. Grimoaldus, son of Pepin. 13 647- 660

3. Angisus, husband of 25 660- 685

Begga, daughter of Pepin.

This Angisus was son of

Arnulph, Bishop of Metz,

who was the son of

Arnold, the son of

Anselbert. Anselbert

was married to

Blitilda, daughter

of Lothair I (Clothair),

king of Austrasia and


4. Pippinus II, of Heristal. 29 685- 714

(714- 715)

5. Karolus Mertellus 26 715- 741

6. Karolomanus, renounced 6 741- 747

his dukedom, entered a

monastery in 6th year

of reign.

7. Pippinus III "the 21 747- 768

Short," son of joint (27) (741- 768)

Karolus Mertellus.

By the time

Pippinus III came to

power, his inheritance

included not only

Brabant, but also

Austrasia, Thuringia,

Burgundy, Neustria

and Provence. In 752

he was elected King of

the Franks, and

reigned till his death

in 768.

8. Karolomannus, son of 3 768- 771

Pippinus, ruled jointly

with his brother

Karolus Magnus.

9. Karolus Magnus, 43 771- 814

assumed sole rule joint (46) (768- 814)

after his brother's

death, became

Roman Emperor in 800.



In 321 B.C. a line of princes migrated via India to the area of

northern Holland and northwestern Germany under their leader Friso.

Friso descended from Ragan or Reu (Gen. 11:19) according to "La Grande

Chronique ... de Hollande, Zelande" etc., p. 28. Friso was an

adventurer in the service of Alexander the Great. After being released

from service, he came with a group of settlers from the river Indus to

Europe. There he gained power (313) over the local counts by means of

intrigue. A descendant, Friso, became king in 287, commencing a

secondary line of rulers.

Name of King Length of Reign Dates

Friso I 68 313- 245

Adel I (94) 245- 151

Ubbo (80) 151- 71

Asinga Ascon or "Black Adel" (81) B.C. 71- 11 A D.

Diocarus Segon, joint during (35) A.D. 11- 46

imprisonment of his cousin

by Duke of Brabant.

Dibbaldus Segon (39) 46- 85

Tabbo (45) 85- 130



Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Asconius 43 130- 173

2. Adelboldus 14 173- 187

3. Titus Boiocalus 53 187- 240

4. Ubbo 59 240- 299

5. Haron Ubbo 36 299- 335

6. Odilbaldus 25 335- 360

7. Udolphus Haron 32 360- 392

After this Frisia again becomes a kingdom.



Name of King Length of Reign Dates

1. Richardus Uffo 43 392- 435

2. Odilbaldus 35 435- 470

3. Richoldus 63 470- 533

4. Beroaldus 57 533- 590

5. Adgillus I 82 590- 672

6. Radbodus I 51 672- 723

7. Adgillus II 14 723- 737

8. Gondobaldus 12 737- 749

9. Radbodus II 26 749- 775

Frisia, which had already been conquered by the Franks, was made

an integral part of the Frankish realm in 775 by Charlemagne. From that

time on it was ruled by dukes appointed by the Franks.

King lists are derived from "Hamconius" and "Oera Linda Boek."



While the descendants of Hector fled Troy and migrated to France,

Bavo led another group into Western Europe. This is the little known

story of the royal family that governed the Celts and the Belgians on

the Continent.

Archaeologists have found a vast cultural complex on the Rhine

River and its tributaries. The almost unknown account of this area is

preserved to us by Jacques de Guyse in his "Histore de Hainaut," a

French translation of his original Latin work of the thirteenth

century. (Hainaut is an ancient division of Belgium.)

Archaeologists, of course, admit that the Belgian people came from

the steppes of Eastern Europe. But just who the people of Belgium,

Holland, Frisia, Luxembourg and Northern France are, archaeology has no

answer. Yet we do not have to remain in ignorance. History has the

answer -- if scholars only had the wit to see. But as with so many

records, historians have rejected what they do not want to believe.

They have carefully hidden the Jewish-Trojan origin of the royal houses

of Western Europe.

The Belgian line commences with Bavo, the son of a sister of

Laomedon, king of Troy. Bavo was therefore a cousin of King Priam.

Following the fall of Troy a migration into Europe occurred along the

Danube. It reached the Rhine by 1179. Bavo, reported Jacques de Guyse,

"encountered with pleasure the descendants of the Assyrians who have

followed Trebeta, and who had been compatriots of the Trojans and

served the same deities" ("Table Generale de l'Histoire de Hainaut,"

II, page 388).

Here, in outline form, is Jacques de Guyse's account of the

Belgian rulers after the fall of Troy in 1181. Only the most important

details are included from the copious annals of Hainaut.

Priest-kings of the Length of Reign Dates


Bavo 13 1179-1166

Bavo the Belgian (Belginius) 44 1166-1122

Bavo the Lion (Leonius) 20 1122-1102

Bavo the Wolf (Lupinus) 50 1102-1052

Bavo Brunus 35 1052-1017

Brunehuldis 67 1017- 950

Bruno 36 950- 914

Aganippus I 29 914- 885

Aganippus II, husband of 50 885- 835

the British Queen Cordelia.

Audengerius 39 835- 796

Herisbrandus 20 796- 776

With Herisbrand ended the rule of the priest-kings over the

Belgians. Political upheaval forced a change in form of government and

brought a strong-willed, able warrior to the royal estate. In 776 --

the year of the first Olympiad in Greece -- Ursus, whose name means

"bearlike," obtained the throne and organized much of continental

Western Europe under his power. The Annals of Hainaut give the

following account of the kings of Belgium from 776-470.

King Length of Reign Dates

Ursus 34 776- 742

Ursa, daughter of Ursus 1 and a half 742- 741

Gurguncius (Gurgust in 28 741- 713

British history).

Sisillius (was made ruler 10 713- 703

over the Belgians while

his father governed the


Friscembaldus I 31 703- 672

Friscembaldus II 32 672- 640

Waringerus 15 640- 625

Leonius 10 625- 615

Leopardus I 5 615- 610

Leopardus II 30 610- 580

Leopardinus 32 580- 548

A political struggle for

two years left the

Belgians without a king.

Camber 20 546- 526

Melbrandus 15 526- 511

Blanduinus 6 511- 505

Suardus 15 505- 490

Leo 7 490- 483

Walacrinus 13 483- 470

There followed a number of dukes, annually elected, none of whose

names have come down in history. The last, Missenus, whose son came to

the throne in 386, is the only one whose name has been preserved. The

actual duration of power of the dukes over the provinces of Belgium is

traditionally given as 104 years -- evidently from 490 to 386. It

therefore appears that they came into prominence with the death of

Suardus. The new line of kings which existed until the Roman victory in

52 is as follows:

King Length of Reign Dates

Leo I 60 386- 326

Leo II 56 326- 270

Leo III 76 270- 194

Leo IV 96 194- 98

Leo V 20 98- 78

Goomerus 8 78- 70

Taynardus 14 70- 56

Usarius, slain by the Romans 4 56- 52

in Caesar's campaign of 52.

Andromadas 6 months 52

Rome crushed all Gaul and Belgium in 52.



During the period that the priest-kings of the line of Bavo ruled

over the Belglans, the Celts in Europe were being governed by another

line. This line of kings sprang from Francus, scion of the House of

Troy, and last king of the Britons before the coming of Brutus.

Francus, according to the historian Freculphe (see Vol. 19 of

"Histoire de Hainaut," sec. cclxvii), began a line of kings that

ultimately ruled in Gaul. He originally turned over the government of

Britain to the Druids (until the time of Brutus). He supported the

Trojans against the Greeks. After the Greek victory, he continued to

govern the remnants of the Celts along the lower reaches of the Danube

basin. An outline of these little-known kings of the Celts is given


Kings of the Celts Length of Reign


Francus, his reign in 47 1216-1169

British records extends

over another 20 years of

Druidic rule before the

coming of Brutus in 1149.

Sicamber 51 1169-1118

Priam II 23 1118-1095

Hector. Hector had three 28 1095-1067

sons: Brabon, Polidamus

and Troilus. The last-

named succeeded him.

Troilus 22 1067-1045

Trogotus. Trogotus led (76) (1045- 969)

a migration near the

beginning of his reign

from Pannonia and Hungary

into Gaul. Observe how

this record accords with

the known migrations

about 1040 to Denmark

and Scotland and Sweden.

(The length of reign of

Trogotus is missing, but

may with great probability

be reconstructed as above.

The possible proof will

be noted later.)

Tongres 34 969- 935

Teuto 32 935- 903

Agrippa 28 903- 875

Ambrio 33 875- 842

Thuringus 34 842- 808

Camber 32 808- 776

The length of reign of Trogotus given above is indicated by the

following. The only known Agrippa in the history of Western Europe at

this period of history is the Trojan king of Alba in Italy. Not

uncommonly have the kings of Italy and Alba ruled Celtica in Gaul.

Jasius did in 1601-1551. A later Silvius came to the British throne

(see Vol. I of "Compendium" on British history). This Agrippa could

hardly be other than the Agrippa of Italy. Though sometimes assigned 41

years, Eusebius assigns him 40 years in Alba -- 915-875. If Eusebius'

figure is used, the 28-year reign of Agrippa over the Celts may be

dated 903-875. Then the reign of Camber would be 808-776. It makes

sense. Camber reigned until the very year (776) that Ursus began his

rule in Belgium. When Ursus came to power he demanded allegiance of

both Celts and Germans.

From this restoration it becomes clear that whoever controlled the

ancient city Trier (which was then part of Belgium) was in a favorable

position to dominate over the Celts of Gaul. A similar situation

occurred over 1500 years later when Charlemagne ruled all Western

Europe from Aachen, a city near Trier.




The old Trojan House, of the line of Dardanus, was restored to

power after the Greek defeat at Troy in 1149. The Greeks did not

preserve the history of this restoration for two reasons. One, they did

not want to recall their defeat in 1149. Second, their writers

deliberately confused the history of Troy to make it appear that only

one great war occurred between the victorious Greek states and the

Trojans. This corruption of Trojan history was the direct result of

trying to make Greek history conform to a distorted account of Egyptian


The full story of the royal Trojan House that returned to power in

Troy has been preserved -- of all places -- in the records of the

Spanish Hapsburgs! The reason? The Hapsburgs were in fact lineal

descendants of the House of Troy!

A complete list of Trojan rulers after the fall of Troy in 1181

may be found in the original Spanish work by Bartholome Gutierrez

entitled: "Historia del estado presente y antiguo, de la mui noble y

mui leal ciudad de Xerez de la Frontera." It was published in Xerez,

Spain in 1886.

A son of Priam, during that fateful 10-year war which ended in

1181, was named Helenus (See "Lempriere's Classical Dictionary," art.

"Helenus".) Through him the royal line was preserved in the Near East.

Helenus was given, by the Greeks, a part of Epirus. After 1149 his

descendants captured control of Troy from the Greeks and the Jewish

House of Dardanus was once again restored to Troy. The Spanish history

records the following names of his descendants who governed Troy until

the Third Trojan War which ended the city in 677.


NOTE: To view the four figures placed here, see these files in the

Images\OtherWCG directory:






Princes of Troy (with the common Latin endings)

1. Zenter, son of Helenus 9. Zaberian

and grandson of Priam.

2. Francus 10. Plaserius II

3. Esdron 11. Antenor I

4. Zelius 12. Trianus or Priam II

5. Basavelian I 13. Helenus II

6. Plaserius I 14. Plesron II

7. Plesron I 15. Basavelian II

8. Eliacor

16. Alexander -- the Paris of the last war against Troy. There were

about 17 generations (including Helenus) in somewhat over five

centuries or approximately 30 years per generation during this period.

Members of the Trojan royal family and most of the population fled to

the northern shores of the Black Sea in eastern Europe after 677.

For the next two and a third centuries after 677 (the date of the

final fall of Troy in a third war) there were the following 12

generations -- averaging about 21 years between generations. None of

these men were kings in the strict sense until Antenor, who died in

445. The genealogy of the Jewish Trojan House continues as follows:

1. Priam III, son of 8. Marcomir

Alexander or Paris.

2. Gentilanor 9. Priam IV

3. Almadius 10. Helenus IV

4. Dilulius 11. Antenor II, who assumed

kingly power among the

5. Helenus III refugees from Troy in

Southeastern Europe

6. Plasserius III

7. Dilulius II 12. Marcomir

But, before we continue with Marcomir, the son of Antenor, another

part of the story should be told. The 8th century anonymous "Frankish

Chronicle" (De Rebus Francorum) states that after the fall of Troy in

1181 about 12,000 Trojans fled by ship across the Black Sea to the

mouth of the Tanais. From there they spread to the Maeotic Swamps and

as far as the borders of Pannonia.

This account agrees very well with the report of Dionysius of

Halicarnassus in his "Roman Antiquities," I, 46, 47, who states that

after the fall of Troy "... a larger number escaped than were taken

prisoner ... the Achaeans, intent on capturing the citadel, were giving

no thought to the pursuit of the multitude who were escaping from the

city .... Aeneas abandoned the palace; and opening the gates he marched

forth with the rest of the fugitives in good order ... they were joined

not only by the inhabitants of Dardanus ... but by the whole populace

of Ophyrnium .... this force of the Trojans became a very large one."

In other words, a large number of people escaped.

Dionysius goes on to state that they obtained permission from the

Greeks to travel about unmolested in order to find a new country in

which to settle. Aeneas headed to the Greek coast near Thessalonika,

and from there southwards to the Mediterranean and Italy. But others

took a different route. "... Ascanius, his eldest son, with some of the

allies, chiefly Phrygians, (went) to the country of Dascylitis (near

the Bosphorus) .... But Ascanius did not tarry there for any length of

time ...." He returned to the site of Troy and tried to reestablish the


Here Dionysius breaks off the account about Ascanius. We know,

however, that Ascanius did not remain at the site of Troy, for Virgil

and others report him as being with his father Aeneas in Italy shortly


But what of the Phrygian army that was with Ascanius? It did not

go with him to Italy. This could be, however, the army of 12,000 which

according to the "Chronicle" settled at the mouth of the Danube.

Fredegarius Scholasticus, claiming Jerome as his authority, says that

the Trojans fled, some to Macedonia, some to the Danube under a king

Friga. Greek historians, like Strabo, generally confirm this exodus to

Macedonia, but are silent about Friga. Since this name can mean, in

Greek, simply "the Phrygian", this just indicates that the Phrygians,

under some obscure Phrygian leader, crossed over to the European shore

and settled in Macedonia, Pannonia and near the mouth of the Danube.

Fredegarius, the "Frankish Chronicle" and Hugo of St. Victor all agree

with "Smith's Dictionary" in stating that the Phrygians settled in that

general area of the Balkans. The Macedonians, according to the latter,

called the Phrygians Bryges. Gregory of Tours also states that the

Franks were originally in Pannonia.

From the lower Danube and Pannonia the Trojan Phrygians moved on

into Europe. Fredegarius and the later "K"nigschronik" both claim that

they moved under a king Franko or Francio to the mouth of the Rhine

where they built New Troy at Xanten (a rivulet named after Xanthus, the

river of Phrygia). That a New Troy was built at Xanten is attested to

by the Romans, who called the town of Xanten Troia Nova. (See "Der

Grosse Brockhaus," article "Troia Nova".) In the same way Julius Caesar

called the Londoners Trinovantes in reference to their city having been

founded as New Troy by Brutus.

The original settling of the Franks at the mouth of the Rhine is

supported by Procopius: "... the Rhine empties into the ocean ... and

this is where the Germans lived of old ... who are now called Franks"

(Procopius of Caesarea, "History of the Wars," V, xii, 7, 8). Holland,

in other words, was the first home of the Franks in Western Europe.

It is in the region of Scythia Minor that Hunibald, the Frankish

chronicler, begins his history. According to him the Trojans, having

dwelt in this region for a number of years after the fall of Troy, are

finally involved in a series of wars with the Goths from Scandinavia.

In 445 B.C. their leader Antenor falls in battle against the Goths.

From this point in history begins Hunibald's list of Frankish kings.

The Trojans who left Troy in 677 after the Third Trojan War went

to the area of the Black Sea where they joined the group that had been

led there by Ascanius after the First Trojan War in 1181. Both were

Trojans, both went to the northern shores of the Black Sea but, at

different times. Both record the same kings as they proceed across




Kings Length of Reign Dates

1. Antenor: a king over

Trojan settlers on the

Black Sea, himself of royal

Trojan blood. Died in 445.

2. Marcomirus I: king of the 28 444- 416

Sicambri (from the German

Cimbri in whose ancient

territory they settled).

In 441 he brought the people

out of Scythia and seated

them on the Danube. During

a council he was told by a

pagan priest to go west where

Brutus of Troy had previously

gone. A pagan prophecy

promises him victory over the

Gauls and the Romans. Sends

embassy to Saxons and asks

for land in which to settle.

In April 439 B.C. they leave

the lower Danube and move

overland, first north, then

west, to the mouth of the

Rhine. A total of 489,360

persons (including 175,658

warriors but not including

slaves and servants) take

part. Marcomirus had

brothers Priam, Panthenor

and Sunno. They settled the

country now called West

Friesland, Gelders and

Holland. Marcomirus crossed

the Rhine and conquered part

of Gaul. One of his brothers

was made governor. Then the

conquest of all Gaul was

gradually completed.

Marcomirus, according to the

"Chronicle of Hunibald", dies

926 years before the death of

the first Christian king of

the Franks, Clovis, in 511.

3. Antenor I marries Cambra, 30 416- 386

the beautiful daughter of

Belinus, king of Britain.

She introduces worship of

Janus, establishes herself

as prophetess and priestess

of Diana. From Cambra the

Scythian Trojans begin to

call themselves Sicambri.

Antenor's nephew, Grun,

builds Gr"ningen in 386 B.C.

Antenor conquered Phrygia --

the original Trojan homeland

-- and slew all the males.

(This recalls Judah's punishment

of the Edomites, many

of whom were now living in

Phrygia.) He died in 386

when Artaxerxes Mnemon, king

of Persia, having finished

the Cyprian War, led an army

of 300,000 men against the


4. Priamus: under him Sicambrians 26 386- 360

adopt Saxon language,

Greek being retained only by

priests for purposes of religious

worship. Neumagen, near

the mouth of the Rhine, becomes

seat of Jupiter worship

established by Cambra.

5. Helenus I: he erected an 19 360- 341

oratory to Pallas, whom he

worshipped by sacrificing

to her captive children.

In 353 he slew 16,000

Gauls (Chaldeans) in battle

in the land of the Tungri.

6. Diocles: he has wars with 39 341- 302

both the Gauls and the Goths.

In 331 B.C. Goths from Scania

attack Saxons, but are

repelled by a combined

Sicambro-Saxon force. He

aided the Saxons against the

Goths in 327. In his absence

the Gauls invaded his kingdom.

By the valour of his officers

they were expelled, losing

78,000 men, besides captives

and children.

7. Helenus II: an effeminate 14 302- 288

individual, unable to ward

off attacks of Gauls. He

was deposed in 288, after

which 8 years of government

under priestly rule followed.

8. Bassanus Magnus: the warlike 36 288- 252

brother of Helenus, liked to

present an image of self-

righteousness. So very

severe in his laws that he

executed his own son for

adultery and put away his

wife for reviling him for it,

and sent her to her father.

In his eighth year he built

many forts against incursions

of the Gauls and finally

obtained the full kingship in

his possession. In his

sixteenth year built the city

Bassanburg, where many of his

successors had their residence.

Trithemius calls this Aix la

Chapelle). In 285 B.C, is

attacked by father-in-law,

king of the Orkneys, but repells

him. In 264 B.C. takes over

duties as priest of Jupiter,

which leads to his ultimate

deification as "Theobasan."

In 257 B.C. leads a successful

campaign as far south as

Koblenz. At this time

Heligastus, the great prophet

of the Sicambri, flourished.

Bassanus later conquered

from the Saxons all the

country from the entrance of

the Rhine to Mentz. In

year 29 he slew Thaborinus,

king of the Togazani (now

Westphalians). He put his

son on the throne in 252

and then disappeared.

9. Clodomir I: in his third 18 252- 234

year the Gauls demanded

restitution of their lands.

Clodomir overcame them

by the aid of the king

of Thuringia and Saxony.

10. Nicanor: married 34 234- 200

Constantina, daughter of

king of Britain. In his

first year he aided the

Saxons against the Slavs

and Goths and returned

with much spoil. In his

third year he aided his

father-in-law against the

king of the Orcades. In

222 B.C. Sicambrians,

Saxons and Thuringians

defeat the Goths. In year

15 he was defeated by the

Goths from Scandinavia, but

afterwards expelled them.

In 215 B.C. he aided the

king of Britain in a war

against the Orkneys, but

was unsuccessful because

of lack of experience in

warfare on the sea.

11. Marcomirus II: successfully 28 200- 172

attacked the Romans,

Gauls, Goths in his first

year. In his fifth year

he commanded the acts of

the Gauls to be written in

rhyme and sung by the bards.

12. Clodius I: in his tenth 11 172- 161

year the Romans and Gauls

wasted his country.

Being next year aided by

the Saxons, he defeated

them, but fell himself in

the battle.

13. Antenor II: he concluded 16 161- 145

a peace with the Gauls

for ten years and abolished

the Trojan custom of

sacrificing his enemies'


14. Clodomirus II: in his 20 145- 125

tenth year the Gauls

broke the peace. They

were overcome in 125, the

last year of his reign.

15. Merodachus: in his fifth 28 125- 97

year he levied an army

of 220,000 of his own

people with Saxons and

Germans and entered Italy

as far as Ravenna. In

his fifteenth year,

because of several

inundations of the sea and the

Rhine, the Sicambri and

Cimbri were forced to

transplant themselves to

the interior -- the

Hercynian Forest -- about

modern Bohemia. In his

twentieth year the Romans

and Gauls invaded their

territories and set the

Goths and Slavs on the

Saxons that they might not

aid the Sicambri. In year

23 (102-101) the Sicambri

joined the Cimbri in a war

against Rome. They were

all defeated by Marius.

After this defeat Merodachus,

with a fresh army,

marched against the Gauls,

gave them a great defeat

and settled again in their

old country.

16. Cassander: in his second 21 97- 76

year the Romans and Gauls

entered his kingdom. In

his ninth year he aided

Arabius, king of the Saxons,

against Berobista, king of

the Goths, who after five

years again invaded Germany.

Cassander, aided by Damercus

king of the Thuringi,

expelled the Goths.

17. Antharius: in his 35 76- 41

twentieth year some of

Caesar's soldiers

revolted to the

Sicambri, who refused

to deliver them up at

Caesar's demand.

Caesar, in revenge,

entered their country

and marched all the way

to Britain 55-54. In 41

Antharius and 2000 of his

men were slain by the

Gauls. He was the last

"King of the Sicambri".

Hereafter the Sicambri

were called Franks or

Franconians after the

name of his son and

successor, Francus.



18. Francus marries a pagan 28 41- 13

priestess, daughter of

king of Thuringia. In his

third year the Goths

encroached upon the country

and remained there for ten

years, after which Francus

expelled them. In the

fourth year the name of

Sicambri was changed to

Franci by an edict at the

people's request. The

next year, being at war

with the Goths, the Gauls

wasted his dominions. As

punishment he levied an

army of 300,000 men and

invading their country took

much spoil and killed

200,000 people of all sexes

and ages. The Romans hearing

of this victory sent Lollius

with forces into Germany.

A long struggle with Rome

followed. He made a league

with the Germans and Saxons

after their Roman allies

were defeated.

19. Clodius II or Clogio: 30 B.C. 13- 18 A.D.

an astronomer and diviner.

This king of the

Franconians fought the

Romans in his second year.

20. Herimerus: he was slain 12 18- 30

in battle by Romans and


21. Marcomirus III: a 18 30- 48

brother of Herimerus.

Phrysius, a brother of

Marcomirus was governor

of Frisia.

22. Clodomirus III: he 12 48- 60

devastated northern Gaul

in 55 A.D. He recovered

all that his predecessors

had lost and fought with

the Romans near Mentz and

wasted the country of Triers.

23. Antenor III: he drowns in 6 60- 66

the Rhine with much of his

army while retreating from


24. Ratherius: he renewed 21 66- 87

the league with the Germans

and Saxons in 74. He

founded Rotterdam and

was buried there.

25. Richimerus I: he was 24 87- 111

strongly religious

and even became a pagan

high priest. In 97 he

repelled a Gothic attack

on Saxony. He sent 18,000

settlers under son Sunno

into Saxony to secure it

against Goths. He fought

with the Romans and Gauls

near Basana (now Aix-la-

Chapelle) in 99. He

received aid of Winderchind,

king of the Saxons, and

Verminfrid, king of the

Thuringi, in 101. He

opposed the Goths who

invaded Germany. The Franks,

Germans and Saxons planted

colonies in that part of

Germany, which is now called

Brandenburg, in 106.

26. Odomar: made a league with 14 111- 125

the Romans and Gauls.

Founder of Utrecht and

builder of Odemarsheim in


27. Marcomirus IV:marries 21 125- 146

Athilde, daughter of the

king of Britain His son,

Frank, builds Helenopolis

(Frankfort), another son

becomes pagan priest. He

rebuilt Marburg in the

Landgraviate of Hesse.

28. Clodomirus IV:marries 17 146- 163

Hasilda, daughter of the

king of Rugen.

29. Farabertus: he renewed the 20 163- 183

ancient league with the

Germans. In his reign the

Dutch (Niederl"nder) are

first mentioned.

30. Sunno or Hunno:warred 28 183- 211

with the Romans and Gauls.

Upon the death of the

Emperor Severus, in 211, he

entered Gaul and wasted it

with fire and sword.

31. Hildericus: he built a 40 211- 251

castle on an isle in the

Rhine and called it

Hildeburg, 214. Introduced

a period of cultural and

architectural expansion.

32. Bartherus: the Franks 18 251- 269

attacked in 256 -- the

year the last Odin

invaded Saxony and led

many of the tribes of

Israel to northwestern

Europe. Raids of Franks,

Thuringians and Bavarians

continue to 259 in Gaul

and Italy. In 262 Franks

and Saxons carry a raid

as far south as Tarragona,

which they besiege. They

spoiled Italy, as far as

Ravenna, 264 and razed

the town of Aragon to the

ground, 267.

33. Clodius III or Clogio: 27 269- 296

in 283 he entered Gaul,

and having slain many

Romans, recovered some

of that which he had

formerly lost. But, the

Romans again expelled

him in 289.


34. Walter 8 296- 304

35. Dagobertus I 11 304- 315

36. Clodius IV or Clogio: 2 315- 317

the Romans and Gauls

invaded Franconia in 317.

Clogio was slain in battle.

37. Clodomirus V: brother of 18 317- 335

Clogio IV. Sends in 322

A.D. 30,000 colonists to

river Main and establishes

Dukedom of Franconia which

survives under 21 Dukes

till Pepin the Short. He

aided the Sarmata against

the Romans, of whom he slew

36,000 in 321. The Franks

were now permitted to

resettle themselves where

Holland, Utrecht, Gelders,

part of Friesia, Westphalia

and Brabant now lie. The

Franks now split, the East

Franks settling in Germany.

Their dukes are listed later.

38. Richimir II: opposed 13 335- 348

Constantius with 200,000

men in 342. He fought

with the Romans and was

slain in battle in 348.

39. Theodomirus: makes Tongres 10 348- 358

his capital, attacks and

burns Trier. Was taken by

the Emperor Julian, who

slew him and his mother.

40. Clodius V or Clogio: to 18 358- 376

revenge his father's death

he took Cambray, slew

many Romans, entered Gaul

and annexed much of it (as

far as the Sagon River) to

his dominions. In 369

Valentinian I defeats him

by surprise attack. Pepin

and Charlemagne are

descended from this king's

third son, Hector.

41. Marcomirus V: the last 15 376- 391

"King of the Franks" until

reign of Pharamund. He

obtained a great victory

over the Romans at Cologne

in 382 and recovered all

that the Emperor had

possessed, except Armorica or

Little Brittany, in 390.

He was slain in battle in

391. The Romans overpowered

the Franks, commanded them

to elect no more kings but

dukes, in the reign of

Theodosius the Great.

42. Dagobert II: appointed 5 391- 396

governor (not king) after

the death of Marcomirus,

refuses Romans tribute.

Valentinian II admires

courage of Franks, is

unable to retaliate

because otherwise occupied

and finally killed

by Arbogast a Frank.

43. Genebaldus: also a mere 21 396- 417

governor, dies without


44. Pharamundus: he is the 7 417- 424

5th duke of Franconia and

was elected king.

45. Clodius VI: teaches Franks 20 424- 444

to wear hair long to

distinguish them from


46. Meroveus: after whom 12 444- 456

Franks were called

Merovingians Takes Trier,

makes great gains in Gaul.

47. Hildericus II: this 1 455- 456

appears to have been a

joint year with Meroveus,

his father. At death of

Meroveus the son was deposed

by Egidius and rebellious

nobles. Hildericus II flees

to Thuringia.

Egidius: a Roman, set up 3 456- 459

by nobles in place of

Hildericus. He was deposed.

Hildericus: reinstated. 22 459- 481

48. Clodoveus or Clovis: 30 481- 511

accepts Roman Catholic

religion. Baptized in 496 A.D.



Duke Length of Reign Dates

1. Genebald I: brother of 30 322- 352

Clodomlr IV, migrated

with East Franks to the

upper Rhine and became

their first duke.

2. Marcomer 21 352- 373

3. Claudius 10 373- 383

4. Marcomer II 16 383- 399

5. Pharamund became king of 15 399- 414

the West Franks in 417.

He is reckoned by early

historians as the first king of

France. In 424 the succession

passed to Clodion who founded

the Merovingian Dynasty. Its

kings all wore long hair.

They kept their kingly office

until the Pope suggested to

the East Franks (Germans)

that they could gain the

power over the Merovingians

by cutting the king's hair.

The last Merovingian was

accordingly tonsured. The

government thereafter passed

to Pippin, father of the

German king Charlemagne, who

restored the Roman Empire in

the west in 800. The history

of the Merovingians, who

descended from the Trojan

line and the house of Judah,

is made especially interesting

in a book entitled

"The Long-haired Kings," by

J. M. Wallace-Hadrill. (See

especially chapter 7.)

The Merovingians

recognized that though they

came from Judah, they

were not of the throne

of David and would hold

their power only so long

as they kept a Nazarite

tradition -- long hair --

symbolizing their

subjection to a Higher Power

-- God -- who rules

supreme among men. (See

Numbers 6.)

6. Marcomer III: Pharamund 14 with 414- 428

ruled in Franconia or Pharamund

East Frankland 399-414;

he ruled all France from 4 sole reign 428- 432

417 till 424. Marcomer

III, Pharamund's brother,

ruled in Franconia until

Pharamund died in 428

(see "Mirror of History").

7. Priamus 12 432- 444

8. Genebaldt II 20 444- 464

9. Sunno 23 464- 487

10. Clodius II: a West Frank, 16 487- 503

became duke of the

East Franks (Germans).

11. Clodomir 21 503- 524

12. Hugbald 26 524- 550

13. Helenus 30 550- 580

14. Gottfried 24 580- 604

15. Genebaldt III 20 604- 624

16. Clodomir II 23 624- 647

17. Heribert 30 647- 677

18. Clodoueus III 12 677- 689

19. Grosswert 26 689- 715

20. Gosspert 14 715- 729

21. Hetan 20 729- 749

Interregnum under Pepin 12 749- 761

The succeeding history of the Franks is so well known and

thoroughly documented as to be everywhere available.

Hunibald's chronicle helps clear up misunderstandings about the

Franks presented by the incomplete accounts of other medieval writers.

Tyro Prosper (Augustine's friend), for instance, contradicts

practically every other ancient historian by stating that the first

king of the Franks was Priam, the father of Marcomir, Sunno and

Genebald, who lived around 382 A.D. This Priam was none other than

Dagobert II (391-396). Priam was another of Dagobert's names. Dagobert

had three sons Marcomir, Sunno and Genebald. He was the first governor

(i.e. first ruler of lower rank than king) of the Franks. Tyro Prosper

obviously did not have all his facts straight.

Another great misconception about the Franks is an alleged

migration from Pannonia in the days of emperor Valentinian. The

"Frankish Chronicle" and Hugo of St. Victor both state that Caesar

Valentinian attempted to exact tribute from the Franks living in

Pannonia, after these had helped him defeat the Alani. The Franks,

refusing to pay, were eventually forced to leave Pannonia and settle at

the mouth of the Rhine.

Some loopholes in this story are immediately evident. First of

all, Roman history is silent about any dealings with the Franks or

other Germans in Pannonia in the days of Valentinian. Secondly,

Valentinian I was emperor in the West, and died in an expedition

against the Quadi. He was never active in the East. The same is true

for Valentinian II, in whose reign the co-emperor Theodosius defeated a

league of Huns, Goths and Alans in Moesia. This incident may possibly

be partly responsible for the story that the Franks helped Valentinian

to defeat the Alans.

Hunibald again comes to our aid. He informs us that both the

Valentinians fought against the Franks in the West, not in Pannonia.

Valentinian I fought against Clogio V in 369. It was Valentinian II, in

the West, who tried to impose the tribute on the Franks in the reigns

of Marcomirus V and Dagobert II. The chroniclers probably confused

Priam (Dagobert II) and his sons Marcomir, Sunno and Genebald, with the

original migration from Pannonia under Marcomir I and his brothers

Priam, Panthenor and Sunno. As a result of this confusion, the

migration was misplaced by some 700 years. Again, this just serves to

demonstrate how valuable Hunibald's account is in presenting us with

the true picture.

There is a bit of difficulty regarding the name Sicambri by which

the Franks were for a while known. Hunibald states that it was derived

from Cambra, the wife of Antenor I. The "Frankish Chronicle," Hugo of

St. Victor and Aethicus Hister maintain, on the other hand, that

Sicambria was a city near the shore of the Black Sea and that from it

the people were called Sicambri.

Aethicus Hister, the Scythian geographer of c. 650 A.D., relates

in his "Cosmographia" the interesting fact that Caracalla -- whom he

calls Romulus -- encountered some Franks in the vicinity of Troy in 214

A.D. Aethicus states that after occupying the area of Troy (see also

Dio's "Roman History" 78.16.7) Caracalla "fought with Francus and

Vassus, who were of royal descent, and they were defeated .... For

Francus and Vassus had concluded an alliance with the Albani (Goths)

and they were both moving their armies against Romulus (Caracalla);

they crossed Histria (the region of Istria on the Dalmatian coast) ....

After the most bloody encounter Romulus defeated them. When Francus and

Vassus saw that their armies had been cut down they fled with a few who

remained ... the land was ruined, laid waste and reduced to desolation;

they were driven from their own belongings and together with a few

companions ... entered Raetia and reached uninviting and deserted

Germany ..." Here we have a small group of Franks moving into

Germany. Could this be where the chroniclers mentioned earlier got

their idea of a migration under a Francus?

A little later Franks again appear on the lower Danube, but this

time as settlers actually brought in from Germany by Probus (276-281).

Zosimus relates in his History: "But the Franks having applied to the

Emperor, and having a country given to them, a part of them afterwards

revolted, and having collected a great number of ships, disturbed all

Greece; from whence they proceeded into Sicily, to Syracuse, which they

attacked, and killed many people there. At length they arrived in

Africa, whence they were repulsed by a body of men from Carthage, yet

they returned home (to the Rhine) without any great loss" (Book I).

This adventurous excursion is also mentioned by Vopiscus and


Hunibald's Chronicle is from Johannes Trittenheim, "Chronik von

der Francken Ursprung," Frankfurt, 1605.



What connection have the Austrian Hapsburgs with the Trojan kings

of the East Franks? Much more than historians today recognize. From

Pharamond, king of the Franks, came a princely line of rulers who

intermarried with Austrian royalty. This line is preserved in the

"Historia de Xerez" by Gutierrez, From Pharamond descended:





Clotarius, whose son Sigibert became a king in Austria


Childubert, king of Austrasia and Burgundy

Theodobert, king of Austrasia

Ligibert, duke of Austrasia

Othobert, count of Altemburg




Guntramus I

Luiffridus I

Luiffridus II


Gumtramus II


Rapatus, whose son became count of Hapsburg

Werner, count of Hapsburg


Werner II

Werner III

Albert I

Rudolf I

Albert II

Rudolf II: of Hapsburg, who became Holy Roman Emperor in 1273.



At the end of the First Trojan War in 1181 still another group

left Troy. These Trojans were led by Franco the son of Hector. The

story of their migration to Gaul is extant. It is found in a medieval

French chronicle -- "Le Myreur d'Histoire" ("The Mirror of History").

This line of rulers is preserved from France to Clovis.

(NOTE: To view the chart placed here, see the file CMPDM2E.TIF in the

Images\OtherWCG directory.)

Ruler Length of Reign Dates

1. Franco I: he left Troy 10 1181-1171

with Aeneas and Antenor.

They sailed to Sizille

(probably Sicily). Franco

traveled to Italy and

North Africa. Then with

3,000 of his followers he

settled in southern Gaul.

They called the area

Franche. The people were sons

of Franco or Franchois. After

his death they were known as


2. Melus: a son of Franco. 51 1171-1120

He rebuilds Troy in 1145.

His daughter, Odela, married

Silvius the king of Italy.

3. Bosses: a son of Melus. 24 1120-1096

He defeated Ascanius,

king of Italy, in a

battle. Bosses later

married Grata the daughter

of Ascanius. This may

have settled the dispute

between them.

4. Ector I: he was the 16 1096-1080

grandson of Broncus.

Broncus was a son of Silvius

and Odela. Ector founded

Troy in Burgogne.

5. Alemaine: son of Bosses. 22 1080-1058

He conquered all Germany

and fortified many cities.

Allemania, a section of

Germany, derives its name

from him.

6. Castor: founds the city 30 1058-1028

of Castre. Died in a fight

with Silvius, king of


7. Ylion I 40 1028- 988

8. Alienoir 28 988- 960

9. Gossain 12 960- 948

10 Ector II 19 948- 929

11. Athanaise 21 929- 908

12. Franco II: married 10 908- 898

Ydoneas the daughter of

Agrippa king of the Latins.

13. Yborus I: son of Franco II 15 898- 883

and Ydoneas. He had a war

with his cousin, the king

of Italy. Founded Lutesse.

14 Anthenoire I 17 883- 866

15. Yolens: he conquered 43 866- 823


16. Prian I 26 823- 797

17. Yborus II: he repelled 22 797- 775

two attacks on Gaul

from Amulius king of the

Latins. His daughter,

Oderne, married Gaffre

the king of Africa. After

Yborus died Amulius married

his widow.

18. Ector III 50 775- 725

19. Ylion II: he founded 40 725- 685


20. Nay: he founded Turnay. 34 685- 651

21. Alymodes: he married the 74 651- 577

daughter of a Roman senator.

He was victorious in a war

with the Roman king Priscus.

One of his children, Aquitaine,

gave his name to the region

in France.

22. Orlins (Aurelian): built 54 577- 523

and gave his name to Orleans.

23. Avrengnas: Auvergne 14 523- 509

derives its name from this


24. Yborus III 40 509- 469

25. Frisones: Frise in 28 469- 441

Champagne is named after


26. Flambo: the Gauls took 48 441- 393

Rome as far as the capitol

during his rule.

27. Flandroc 33 393- 360

28. Turrus (Turnus): founded 59 360- 301

Tours. That section of

France called "Touraine"

derives its name from him.

29. Brugen: Bruges was 25 301- 276

founded by him. His

brother Amyrus founded


30. Duanus (Duaynus) 16 276- 260

31. Camberacion: founded 55 260- 205


32. Bretanges: Brittany is 10 205- 195

named after him.

33. Cletus 22 195- 173

34. Franco III: he joined the 53 173- 120

Flemish and Burgundians

against Rome. The Romans

under Scipio were defeated.

35. Prians II 56 120- 64

36. Yborus IV: Julius Caesar 40 64- 24

invaded Gaul and took

Paris while he ruled.

37. Franco IV 28 B.C. 24- 5 A.D.

38. Trojolus (Troielus) I 29 5- 34

39. Cloberius (Cloveius) 45 34- 79

40. Ector IV: he defeated the 47 79- 126

Romans and captured

Emperor Domitian.

41. Franco V: he was made 25 126- 151

duke of the Gauls by the


42. Anthenoir II: he was duke 31 151- 182

of Gaul and count

of Flanders.

43. Ector V 5 182- 187

44. Franco VI 8 187- 195

45. Troiolus II 27 195- 222

46. Marcones I: wars were 44 222- 266

fought in which the

Romans lost nearly 30,000


47. Ector VI; the Germans 16 266- 282

held Paris for a short


48. Porus: Diocletian was 19 282- 301

defeated by the dukes of

Gaul and Brittany. Martin

Bishop of Tongre baptized


49. Marcones (Merones) II 32 301- 333

50. Anthenoir III 10 333- 343

51. Ector VII 1 343- 344

52. Prian III 32 344- 376

53. Marchones III under regent 7 376- 383

joint with son 34 383- 417

sole (31) (383- 414)



1. Pharamond 11 417- 428

2. Clodius 20 428- 448

3. Meroveux 10 448- 458

4. Celdris 23 458- 481

5. Cloveis 30 481- 511

These are kings after Marcomirus V (376-391). Compare this list

with that from the "Chronicle of Hunibald."



Historians would have us believe that Western Europe was inhabited

by wild and barbarian Celts and Germans while Rome flourished in power

and glory. But, the evidence proves that civilized people migrated to

Gaul and the Low Countries centuries before the founding of Rome.

In 1181 Troy fell to the Greek invaders. Franco, a son of Hector,

fled to Southern Gaul. His group was later known as Gauls. Caesar

subdued them during campaigns in Aquitania and Provence.

Bavo and his followers arrived in Belgica in 1179. They were known

as Belgians or Batavians. Another migration leaving in 1181 was led by

Francus. They ultimately reached Celtica. The Celts lost their

independence to Ursus (Belgian king) in 766. In 52 Caesar conquered

both Gaul and Belgium.

Francio began a movement which eventually settled in Pannonia. One

of their rulers, Brabon Silvius, was given Agrippina by Julius Caesar.

In 378 A.D. Gratian drove the Sicambrians out of Pannonia. Maximus

allowed them to migrate to Brabant. Clodius, king of the Franks,

annexed Brabant. Thus, Brabon became a servant and Brabant a dukedom.

Trojans under Ascanius (1181) and Alexander (677) joined each

other on the Danube. The trek across Europe began in 445. By 439 they

reached the mouth of the Rhine. The Sicambrian and Frankish kings ruled

the Trojans there. During the reign of Clodomirus V (317-335) the

Franks split (East and West). Marcomirus V was the last king of the

Franks until Pharamund.




The Swedes, too, have a remarkable history which modern critical

historians have largely rejected. Rejected, not because the historians

have disproved the facts, but because they simply do not want to

believe the records.

Who today would believe that there was an Odin? -- a god who made

his appearance among the Swedes and Saxons? The idea would be laughed

out of school because there were no gods! It seems never to have

occurred to historians that" the heathen would have called a

flesh-and-blood king a god -- and deified him.

Has the twentieth century already forgotten a man named Hitler

whom the German Propaganda Minister Goebbels called "Mein Fuehrer und

mein Gott" -- "My Fuehrer and my God"?



Let Swedish history speak for itself. The early chronicles and

sagas of the Scandinavians reveal a remarkable story. The regnal lists

give us the time setting The story they have to tell does not agree

with the modern concept of northern barbarians who had no sense of

history until perhaps nine or ten centuries after the Christian Era.

History writers have been so enamored of Rome that any record not

preserved by the Romans is looked upon as unhistorical. What is

unhistorical is the view that the Romans preserved all that merits the

name history. Rome did not preserve. Rome destroyed. And anyway, of

what interest would the history of Scandinavia have been to Roman


In the Middle Ages Swedish writers began the process of digesting

the mass of information preserved in their early chronicles and sagas.

Among them the name Bertius should be especially named.

Bertius' "History of Sweden" has been in part, though not

altogether correctly, summarized by James Anderson in his "Royal


The early history of Scandinavia is a remarkable confirmation of

the Biblical record and of the early history of the German and

Mediterranean peoples. It begins with the story of the dispersal of the

families of the earth by Noah. It was this God-decreed event against

which Nimrod rebelled. Why should people not be free to go where they

pleased? After all this was their earth! Or so he thought.

From Persian and Italian history it has already been determined

that the migration to various parts of the world began in 2261. Swedish

chronicles trace the history of this migration and of the peoples who

have since inhabited Scandinavia. The story opens with the migration of

Magog out of the region of Ararat or Armenia.

The family of Magog at first settled in the vast reaches of the

Eurasian steppes. From there most of his descendants spread north and

east through Bactria and Turkestan into Mongolia and China. A few

spread northwest -- by 2260, says Bertius -- into the North Russian

plains and the lands bordering on the Baltic. At this very day may be

found a semi-Mongoloid people -- the Lapps -- inhabiting the

Scandinavian Arctic with their reindeer. Sweden was also inhabited in

early times by Goths -- whom all writers admit were the children of

Gether, the son of Aram. Now notice the chronological record of these

early events from Bertius outlined here:

1. Magog 43 2260-2217

2. Suevus or Sweno, the older 56 2217-2161

brother of Gether. His

Biblical name is Uz, the

father of the Suevonians,

Ausonians and Sitonians

(see Gen. 10:23).

3. Gether, younger son of Aram 60 2161-2101

4. Ubbo, who settled Upsal 101 2101-2000

Significantly, the date

2101 also brings Noah into

Italy again. The year 2000

is the time of the division

of Europe by Tuisto, king

of the Germans.

5. Siggo 10 2000-1990

Danish history declares that from this date -- 1990 --

Scandinavia, and in particular Denmark, had Judges, rather than kings,

who governed for the space of 950 years. It was exactly 950 years until

1040 and the coming of king Odin -- Danus I of Denmark (see Danish


Swedish history continues with names of famous Scandinavian Judges

-- in some cases they assumed the royal title. Bertius lists them as


6. Eric I, began in 1990 11. Biorn I

7. Uddo 12. Gethar II

8. Ale 13. Siggo II

9. Osten I 14. Berich or Eric

10. Karl or Charles I



Berich became king in 1511 according to Bertius. He ruled the

Goths 40 years. According to Jordanus, the historian of the Goths,

Berich led them out of Scandinavia to the Middle East. This is also the

period of the sudden appearance in Mesopotamia of the Gothic people --

the Guti. (At that time, as in later days, the Goths were widely

scattered. Many had settled in the regions of Bactria northeast of

Mesopotamia; others had been in Eastern Europe and Scandinavia.) Berich

or Eric appears in Greece in the Athenian list of kings. There his name

is Erichthonius He came to power in Athens the year of the Exodus --


After Berich, Bertius' Swedish history preserves only one other

name -- the fifteenth in order -- Humulf. He is called the successor of

Berich. Swedish history does not pick up again until the time of

Humble, son of Danus I of Denmark.

At this point in Swedish history Bertius has placed his list

upwards of between two and three centuries too early. His confusion

arose from misunderstanding who Danus I of Denmark was. There was an

earlier Danus -- in the 1200's. He led the Tuatha De Danaan (who had

come from Greece in the time of Jabin king of Canaan) from Scandinavia

to Scotland and then into Ireland. That Danus was not Danus I of




Swedish history recommences after the period of judges, just after

the time of Danus I. Danus led a Hebrew-Trojan migration to

Northwestern Europe.

Properly restored from a comparison with contemporary Danish

history, Bertius' list of Swedish rulers should appear as follows:

16. Humble, son of Danus I (8) (999- 991)

of Denmark.

The figure and date at

the right are from Danish

history Bertius gives

no figure.

17. Gothlias (40) (991- 951)

18. Sigtaug 33 951- 918

19. Scarin 40 918- 878

20. Suibdager, king of Norway. 60 878- 818

He ruled Denmark for 40 years

21. Hasmund, son of Suibdager 48 818- 770

22. Uffo, son of Hasmund 44 770- 726

23. Hunding 48 726- 678

24. Regner, son of Hunding and 29 678- 649

younger brother-in-law of

Frotho I of Denmark.

25. Hotobrod, son of Regner 65 678- 613

He was associated with

his father on the throne

during a period of Danish

domination of Sweden.

26. Atilla I 49 613- 564

27. Hothar, king of Sweden and 78 564- 486


Hothar is usually dated

527-485 in Danish history.

And his son Roric in Denmark

is given 49 years -- 485-

436, But the list of Danish

kings in "Historisch -- und

Geographisches" Lexicon by

Jacob Iselin, art. "Danemarck,"

assigns 50 years to Roric --

486-436. This confirms the

Swedish dating. The year

486-485 was the climax of a

Danish revolt against Hotobrod.

28. Roric 84 520- 436

He reigned jointly with

his father for many years,

while his father governed


29. Attila II, or Atisle 30 436- 406

30. Botwildus, son of Attila II 42 406- 364

31. Charles II 48 364- 316

32. Gramus -- 316-

From here on there is no record of the lengths of reign of any

Swedish ruler until the time of Augustus Caesar. The political

divisions of the country probably acknowledged no supreme ruler over

the whole of the land. Only the following list of names is recorded for

the intervening period.

33. Tordo I

34. Gotharus

35. Adolphus, son of Gotharus

36. Algodus I

37. Erich II

38. Lindornus, son of Eric II

39. Alrich or Abric

He became king of Sweden

in the days of Augustus

Caesar. Following his

murder Eric III ascended

the throne.

40. Eric III 22 18 B.C. to A.D. 5

Bertius gives the longer (or 79) 75 B.C. to A.D. 5

figure, which must indicate

that a lengthy struggle for

the kingship occurred in

the days of Alrich and Eric.

Hereafter there is a consecutive

list of kings. The political

stability of Sweden returned.

Swedish history now continues to the time of Njord or Nearch --

256. The following list of Swedish kings may be readily found in James

Anderson's "Royal Genealogies." Unfortunately the author failed to take

note of no Year 0. Consequently all these Swedish kings are dated one

year too early! The corrected dates are below.

41. Godrich 30 5- 35

42. Haldan I 36 35- 71

43. Filmer 14 71- 85

44. Nordian 16 85- 101

45. Siward I 31 101- 132

46. Charles II 38 132- 170

47. Erich IV 12 170- 182

48, Haldan II (Bergiamus), 13 182- 195

died without heir

49. Unguin 9 195- 204

He ruled Denmark 146-155.

He came to the Swedish

throne in his old age.


50. Ragwald 17 204- 221

51. Amund I 5 221- 226

52. Haron 9 226- 235

53. Siward II 6 235- 241

54. Ingo I, Gylfe 6 241- 247

Odin appears in his day.

55. Nearch or Njord 9 247- 256



56. Froda or Frey called Yngve 2 256- 258

57. Urbarus 5 258- 263

58. Ostevus 1 263- 264

59. Fiolmus 10 264- 274

60. Swercher I 5 274- 279

61. Waland or Vanland 4 279- 283

The Yngling family began to reign in 256, the year Saxon history

(which will appear at the end of this chapter) brings the family of

Odin to Northwestern Europe. The people whom Odin brought originally

came from Asaheim -- the home or land of God ("the gods" in pagan

Swedish terminology). Many writers have placed the migration of this

period three centuries too early. They have confused another Odin --

Danus III (146-77) -- with this later Odin.

62. Wisbur 6 283- 289

63. Domalder 19 289- 308

64. Domar 7 308- 315

65. Attila III 22 315- 337

66. Dignerus or Dygve 5 337- 342

67. Dagerus or Dag 24 342- 366

68. Alricus 2 366- 368

69. Ingemarus I 11 368- 379

70. Ingelderus 4 379- 383

71. Germundus 5 383- 388

72. Hakon 12 388- 400

73. Egilus 6 400- 406

74. Gotharus or Ottar 16 406- 422

75. Fasto 6 422- 428

76. Gumundus 6 428- 434

77. Adelus 4 434- 438

78. Osten II 16 438- 454

79. Ingemarus II 2 454- 456

80. Holstenus 5 456- 461

81. Biornus II 4 461- 465

82. Ragwaldus II 17 465- 482

83. Swartmannus 28 482- 510

84. Tordo II 1 510- 511

85. Rodulf 17 511- 528

86. Hatinus 21 528- 549

87. Attila IV 16 549- 565

88. Tordo III 18 565- 583

89. Algodus 24 583- 607

90. Godstagus 24 607- 631

91. Arthus 19 631- 650

92. Hakon II 21 650- 671

93. Charles IV 6 671- 677

94. Charles V 9 677- 686

95. Borgerus 15 686- 701

96. Eric V 17 701- 718

97. Tordo IV 47 718- 765

98. Biorn III 16 765- 781

99. Alaric II 33 781- 814

100. Biorn IV 11 814- 825

101. Bratemunder 3 825- 828

102. Siward III 15 828- 843

103. Heroth 14 843- 857

104. Charles VI 12 857- 869

105. Biorn V 15 869- 884

106. Ingold 8 884- 892

107. Claus I 9 892- 901

108. Ingo II 7 901- 908

109. Eric VI 19 908- 927

110. Eric VII 14 927- 941

111. Eric VIII 40 941- 981

112. Olaus II, the Lap-king 38 981-1019

113. Amund II 21 1019-1040

114. Amund III 2 1040-1042

115. Hakon Ruffus 13 1042-1055



116. Stenchil 5 1055-1060

117. Ingo II, first Christian 5 1060-1065

king of Sweden and Gothland.

118. Halsten 16 1065-1081

119. Philip 30 1081-1111

120. Aquin or Ingo IV 19 1111-1130

Ingo is said to have been poisoned in 1125. A struggle for the

throne ensued. As there was no direct male heir of the house of

Stenkil, the descendants on the female side of the family claimed right

to rule.

121. Ragnald, king of the Upper

Swedes during period of


122. Mangus I, a Danish prince, 4 1130-1134

king of West Gothland

123. Swecher II, chosen in 1133, began to reign in 1134 (see

"Encyclopaedia Britannica," eleventh edition, art. "Sweden"). Most

thorough histories on Sweden are complete and accurate from this

period. A helpful work to consult is the "History of Sweden" by

Cronholm. Some dates may vary because the end of reign does not always

mark the date of death.



Saxon history is intimately tied to the history of Denmark and

especially Sweden. The Saxon throne in England today goes back to the

same royal lines that anciently governed Denmark and Sweden. Each

ultimately stems from the Jewish Trojan House of Darda or Dardanus.

Let us pick up our investigation of this Jewish royal family that

came from Troy to Denmark under Odin or Danus I in 1040. In the chapter

on Danish history the records of Iceland and Phoenicia proved that

Jacob or Israel was the ancestor of the ancient Trojan royal house.

From Israel the line descended through Judah and Zarah to Dardanus.

Dardanus carved out an important inheritance for himself at Troy. The

lineage of Dardanus is brought down after the first fall of Troy for

several generations to Sceaf or Odin (Danus) in the Icelandic records.

From the Danish royal house the following branch sprang, giving rise to

the Saxon royal house that today governs England.

This collateral line is preserved in the old "Saxon Chronicle" and

in the Icelandic Langfedgatal. Spellings vary slightly, and not every

generation is recorded in each.

For that matter neither did Matthew record every generation of

Jesus' lineage. This list commences with Shem, son of Noah and

continues with

Sceaf or Odin I (1040-999) Beu

Beadwig Gearwa

Wala Fingondwelf

Hathra Frederewelf

Itermond Freolf

Heremod Fredewald

Celdwa Woden (256-300)

This Odin -- only a part of whose ancestors appear above -- is a

famous hero in all Scandinavian literature His fame rests upon having

led a vast multitude from the Near East, on the borders of the Roman

Empire, to Northwest Europe. The real name of Woden was Bodo. He is

found also listed among the early princes of Saxony The following list

preserves the traditional chronology and genealogy of Bodo's immediate

ancestors who ruled the Saxons to the time of Bodo the Woden.

Kings Over the Saxons Lengths of Reign Dates

1. Harderich 93 90 B.C. to A.D. 4

2. Anserich 4 4- 8

3. Wilke I 22 8- 30

4. Svarticke I 46 30- 76

5. Svarticke II 4 76- 80

6. Sigward 20 80- 100

7. Witekind I 6 100- 106

8. Wilke II 84 106- 190

9. Marbod 66 190- 256

10. Bodo or Woden 44 256- 300

His queen was named Frea.

From Bodo sprang, among many others, the following princes after


11. Witte I 50 300- 350

12. Witte II 50 350- 400

13. Witigislus 34 400- 434

14. Hengist 14 434- 448

Hengist traditionally sailed to England in 449 and established

several sons on thrones over the various divisions of the Anglo-Saxons.

They finally united into the single royal house that now, through many

intermarriages, rules the British Isles. In his continental realm

Hengist left his son Hartwaker who ruled 32 years -- 448-480. The line

continued in Saxony in Germany until Witekind II, the Great -- 768-785.

Witekind was conquered by Charlemagne in 785.




Arabia may be blanketed by arid plateaus and inhospitable deserts.

But Arabia is also a vast land inhabited by many different tribes. Few

have ever compared it with Europe. Many of the great nations of Europe

would be lost in Arabia's solitudes.

Arabia also has its past history -- one which joins together and

confirms the accounts of neighboring nations. Arabia borders -- by land

and sea -- on Mesopotamia and Persia, on Syria and Palestine and on

Egypt and Ethiopia. Whatever happened in the heartland of the ancient

world inevitably affected the trade routes of Arabia.



The most famous name in Arabian history is that of Ishmael.

Ishmael, Abram and Hagar's son, is the progenitor of most of the Arab

world. Then why are not the people called Ishmaelites today? Why do we

not call the peninsula of Arabia the peninsula of Ishmael? How did

Ishmaelites acquire the designation Arab?

Answer: the land was already known as Arabia before Ishmael was


The word Arab is derived from the Hebrew root "arab." It means

evening, dusk, and also sterile (desert). The vast arid land of Arabia

lay immediately to the west and south of Babylonia from whence human

beings spread after Babel. It was only natural that they should call

the land which lay to the west Arabia. As they migrated in Arabia they

called the land to the south Yemen. Yemen means right and south (cf.

the Biblical Ben-jamin) -- because in the Middle East people face east

(not north) in defining directions.

Any who dwelt in this vast peninsula came to be known as Arabs. In

fact, one of the earliest heroes in Arabia came to be known simply as

Yarab -- the Arabian. His real name was Jerah, the son of Joktan. And

with him we open the history of Arabia.

A simple account of Arabian history may be found in "Universal

History," Vol. XVIII. It is immediately noticed that Arabian emphasis

is on heroes, not time. Events can be dated only to contemporary

generations. Only Yemen has an accurate chronology. This weakness is

still witnessed in the Islamic calendar. It is lunar, but not solar. It

neglects the seasons and loses seven months in nineteen solar years.

Arabian history opens up before the time of Ishmael, as one might

readily expect. It begins with the life of Joktan, the son of Heber.

The Arabs call Joktan by the name Kahtan. Joktan was the father of

thirteen sons mentioned in the Bible, eleven of whom journeyed into

Europe where their descendants mainly live today. Several of those sons

early planted colonies along the trade routes of the world -- just as

have the children of Peleg, Joktan's brother, in the modern world.

Among the sons who planted colonies along south Arabia were

Hazarmaveth, Jerah and Hadoram (whom the Arabs call Jorham). Ophir also

planted colonies in other areas of the world.

In later history the sons of Hazarmaveth migrated out of Arabia,

joined with the Elamites and journeyed into Europe after the fall of

Persia. There they came to be known as Sarmatians.



The children of Hadoram or Jorham founded Hejaz. There princes

reigned until the time of Ishmael, who is said by Arabian historians to

have married the daughter of Modad, a daughter of one of the princes of

Jorham's family. The family of Ishmael afterward expelled the

Jorhamites from Arabia. The names of the early princes of the

Jorhamites have been preserved by Arab historians. Their account is

summarized here:

1. Jorham, the brother of Yarab, founded Hejaz; he is Hadoram, the

brother of Jerah.

2. Abd Yalil, the son of Jorham.

3. Jorsham, the son of Abd Yalil.

4. Abdo'l Madan, the son of Jorsham.

5. Nogailah, the son of Abdo'l Madan. (Note the name Medan at nearly

the same time in Abraham's family.)

6. Abdo'l Masih, the son of Nogailah.

7. Modad, the son of Abdo'l Masih.

8. Amru, the son of Modad.

9. Al Hareth, brother of Amru. This name will appear again, though

much later, in the form of Aretas, the king

who sought to lay hands on the apostle Paul at Damascus.

10. Amru, the son of Al Hareth.

11. Basher, the brother of Amru.

12. Modad, the son of Amru, the son of Modad. It was his daughter whom

Ishmael married, according to Arabian

historians. His other wife his mother chose out of Egypt.

Thereafter the name of Kedar (Kidar in Arabic) appears.

Kedar was the son of Ishmael by the daughter of Modad. After the

conquest of the Jorhamites, the family of Kedar continued to rule over

the Hejaz for nine generations until Adnan, the last one named. There

follows a blank period of about 1200 years, after which the Ishmaelites

reappear under another leader called Adnan in 122 B.C. One branch of

his descendants later established themselves as the Sherifs of Mecca.

King Hussein of Jordan is their direct descendant.



In Arabia, at the southwest corner, is the modern Yemen -- Yaman

in Arabic. It means south. It is a land of many diverse tribes -- many

non-Ishmaelite. Yemen was founded by Kahtan -- the Joktan of the Bible.

Yemen anciently controlled the entrance to the Red Sea from the Indian

Ocean. Hence its early importance to the Hebrew family. Hamza

Ben-el-Hasan of Isfahan has preserved the history and chronology of

Yemen to the time of Mohammed. The best summary of his work is found in

"Geschichte der Araber vor Muhamed" by August Ruhle von Lilienstern,

Berlin, 1836, pp. 103 ff and especially Tafel I.

Rulers of Yemen Length of Reign Dates

1. Kahtan or Joktan, first (His brother Peleg was

established his rule in born 2268)

Yemen, then went into

Europe where he was known

as Hister (meaning same

as original Hebrew


2. Yarab, son of Kahtan,

from whom the Kahtan Arabs

of the south derive their

origin. His Biblical

name is Jerah.

3. Yashab, son of Yarab.

4. Abd Shems, surnamed Saba,

son of Yashab. He led

successful expeditions

against enemies in the

peninsula. In 1978 he

expanded his power across

the Red Sea into Ethiopia, (See Ethiopian history

where he established for dates)

himself as the head of a

new Joktanite dynasty.

In Ethiopian history he

is known as Akbunas Saba.

Abd Shems had several sons,

among whom were Hamyar,

Amru and Cahlan. Cahlan

succeeded his father on the

throne in Ethiopia in 1923

under the name of Nakehte


5, Hamyar, son of Abd Shems, 150 1709-1559

began his reign, according

to Abulfeda, 129 years

after the death of Hud

(whom Arabs say is Eber).

Hamyar drove the remnant

of the Themudites or

Troglodytes out of Yemen.

These were later found by

Greek Geographers on the

African shore of the Red Sea.

6. Wayel, son of Hamyar,

succeeded to the kingdom.

Other writers mention

Cahlan -- which implies a

division of land among the


7. Alsacsac, son of Wayel.

8. Yaafar, son of Alsacsac.

9. Dhu Rujash. At this point

it ought to be noted that the

number of generations over so

long a period corresponds

almost exactly to the Biblical

record from Abraham to David.

There were 14 generations in

the Bible in just under 1000

years. As in the Biblical

record the inheritance often

passed to a son born late in

life (as in the case of David,

the youngest son of Jesse).

10. Al Numan, son of Yaafar.

11. Ashman, son of Numan.

12. Shaddad, son of Ad, son of

Al Matata, son of Abd Shems.

He was a very powerful

prince in Arabic tradition

He lived during the time of

the great Hyksos expansion in

the Middle East. Arab

tradition claims he ruled

260 years.

13. Lokman, brother of Shaddad.

14. Dhu Sadad, brother of Lokman. -1150

15. Al Hareth, son of Dhu 125 1150-1025

Sadad. In his time Yemen

became immensely wealthy.

Reason? The Trojan war.

With trade shut off from

Scythia, it was inevitable

that there should be an

expansion of commerce along

the southern route.

16. Dhu'l Karnain Assaab.

(Joint reign with successor

who is assigned entire


17. Dhutl Manar Abrahah, son of 183 1025- 842


18. Africus, son of Dhu'l 164 842- 678

Manar Abrahah. His name

signifies the connection

between Egypt, Ethiopia

and South Arabia at this

time. He settled North

Africa with Berbers from

Palestine and Egypt.

19. Dhu'l Adhaar Amru, son of 25 678- 653

Africus, made foreign


20. Sharhabil, descendant of

Alsacsac. (Joint reign.)

21. Al Hodhad, son of Sharhabil. 75 653- 578

22. Balkis, son of Hodhad. In 20 578- 558

some Arabic sources his

name is confused with Belkis

-- the Arabic name for the

Queen of Sheba.

23. Nasherol'neam, descendant 85 558- 473

of Sharhabil.

24. Shamer Yaraash, son of 37 473- 436

Nasher. He gave his name

to Samarkand in Central

Asia. At this time there

must have been extensive

migration of Edomites and

Joktanites out of Arabia

into Central Asia, around


25. Abu Malec, son of Shamer. 55 436- 381

26. Amran, son of Amer,

descendant of Cahlan, the

brother of Hamyar.

27. Amru, son of Amer (both

brothers reign jointly,

but the chronology is

reckoned after the reigns of

Abu Malec and Al Akran).

28. Al Akran, descendant of 53 381- 328

Abu Malec.

29. Dhu Habshan, son of 70 328- 258

Al Akran.

30. Tobba, younger brother 163 258- 95

of Al Akran.

31. Colaicarb, son of Tobba. 35 95- 60

32. Abu Carb Asaad (Tobba). 20 60- 40

He is mentioned in the

Koran. He revived religious

interest among the Arabians

and Hamyarites. He adorned

the Kaaba, the sacred stone

building at Mecca, and

introduced Judaism among

the Hamyarites, The Arab

historian Ibu Khaldun

reports that Abu Carb sent

large military expeditions

into Central Asia. Two of

these reached Tibet and

China, where they caused a

great blood bath. On the

way back many warriors of

the Hamyarite armies settled

in Tibet. Tribes using the

Hamyarite alphabet were still

found in that region in

modern times (Marquart,

"Osteurop"ische und

Ostasiatische Streifzüge",

p. 84). Abu Carb was

murdered, possibly for

religious reasons.

33. Hassan ben Tobbai, son 70 40 B.C.- 31 A.D.

Abu Carb.

34. Amru Tobbai (Dhu Lawad), 63 31- 94

son of Hassan.

35. Abd Celal 74 94- 168

36. Tobba, grandson of Hassan. 78 168- 246

37. Al Haroth, son of Amru.

(Joint reign.) He was

king of Hamyarites who

embraced Judaism.

38. Morthed, son of Celal, also 41 246- 287

surnamed Dhu Lawad.

39. Waciaa, son of Morthed. 37 287- 324

40. Abrahah, son of Alsabah

(Joint reign).

41. Sabban (Joint reign).

42. Sabbash (Joint rule with 15 324- 339


43. Hassan, descendant of Amru 57 339- 396

(Joint rule with Sabban).

44. Dhu Shanater. He was 27 396- 423

finally dethroned for

unnatural lusts, having

abused several youths

of the noblest families.

45. Yusuf Dhu Nowas 20 423- 443

46. Dhu Jadan, the last of 60 443- 503

the Hamyaritic monarchs.

He sought to enforce Judaism

in opposition to Christianity.

The Ethiopians, with help of

Byzantium, defeated Dhu

Jadan. He perished in the

sea, fleeing from the

Ethiopians. Ethiopia

ruled Yemen for the next

72 years (503-575) until

the Persian conquest.

47. Arnat 20 503- 523

48. Abrahah 23 523- 546

49. Iecsoum (Yacsum) 17 546- 563

50. Masruk 12 563- 575

51. Seif Ebn Dhu Yazan, a 575

descendant of the old

royal family of Hamyar,

recovered the throne from

the Ethiopians with the

aid of the Persian Khosru

Anushirwan. Seif was,

however, slain by certain

Ethiopians whom he had

failed to expel. After

575 the Persians appointed

princes until the time of

Mohammedan conquest of Yemen.

Arabian historians reckon 3000 years to the end of the Kingdom of

Yemen. And it is indeed exactly 3000 years from the end of the Flood to

the death of Mohammed in 632, when the government of Arabia passed to

the Ishmaelite caliphs, the successors of Mohammed.



To complete Volume II, we must recount the brief history of

Arakan, in Burma, and the history of early India before 1649.

The Arakanese, in Burma, have preserved a remarkable history going

back to the Tower of Babel. The initial part of it was cited in the

early history of Peru. A continuation of that chart is given below. It

traces the migration of peoples out of Mesopotamia into the Ganges

valley. For several centuries after the age of Horus (Maradzi II of

Arakanese history) there are Hindu names ending in -sandra in the list

of rulers. Abruptly the names change. There followed a migration of

Southeast Asians out of India into the area of Arakan along the Burmese


During the time in India the early Hindu rulers utilized the

nonaccession-year method of dating. That is, the last calendar year of

a king (during which he died or was deposed) was also reckoned as the

first calendar year of his successor. This same method was used in the

nation Israel to the time of Jehu -- in contrast to the accession-year

system of Judah.

Arakanese records fill in the missing years of Indian history to

1649. Properly restored from the palm-leaf records, their early rulers

appear as follows:

Maradzi II (Horus) 33 2004-1971,




Marakeng Year 1 1971-1970

Year 32 1940-1939,

early Indian


year reckoning

Ngatshapo Year 1 1940-1939

(a usurper) Year 21 1920-1919

Dwaratsandra Year 1 1920-1919

Year 40 1881-1880

Tholatsandra Year 1 1881-1880

Year 33 1849-1848

Tsandathuriyatsandra Year 1 1849-1848

Year 37 1813-1812

Kalatsandra Year 1 1813-1812

Year 40 1774-1773

Titsandra Year 1 1774-1773

Year 31 1744-1743

Madhuthatsandra Year 1 1744-1743

Year 20 1725-1724

Dzeyatsandra Year 1 1725-1724

Year 40 1686-1685

Mokkhatsandra Year 1 1686-1685

Year 26 1661-1660

Gunnatsandra Year 1 1661-1660

Year 12 1650-1649

Three Usurpers in one 1650-1649,

calendar year. ending early



year reckoning

At this point the names of kings ending in -sandra cease. The

succeeding centuries of Indian history may be found restored in Volume

I of the Compendium. The migration in 1649 of Mongoloid peoples out of

India to Arakan in Burma was a consequence of the war with Assyria in





Did the children of Israel really cross the Red Sea? We are told

in the Bible that Israel fled Egypt during the Days of Unleavened

Bread. That they were driven out because the Egyptians had been

supernaturally punished by God.

But at the last minute, Pharaoh changed his mind! It took yet

another miracle to deliver the children of Israel out of Egypt, says

the Bible -- the "miracle of the Red Sea."

Did this miracle really happen?



It is time Christians recognized it takes a miracle today to

separate from this world, to come out of this world's society, and to

live as God has ordained! Those who say that the miracle of the Red Sea

did not happen are the same people who today say we do not have to rely

on any supernatural power to overcome this world.

The supreme lesson to be learned from the Days of Unleavened Bread

is that, after Christ has passed over our mistakes and overlooks our

past, we have to go through a period of separating from this world --

and in this process we cannot extricate ourselves from this world

without a divine miracle. This miracle is something that God, not man,

has to perform -- just as God performed, according to the Scripture,

the miracle of the Red Sea! God told the children of Israel, "Stand

still, and see the salvation of the Lord."

Now consider the story of what really took place during the seven

days of Unleavened Bread -- from the time the children of Israel left

the land where they observed the Passover to the time they crossed he

Red Sea.

Modern critics have all kinds of theories as to the directions the

children of Israel took when they journeyed in Egypt from the city of

Rameses, where they met at the night of the Festival, to the Red Sea.

One sometimes wonders where the children of Israel would have been

taken had all the modern critics instead of Moses led them from


What portion of the land of Egypt did Israel journey through upon

leaving? What is the route of the Exodus? Did the crossing of the Red

Sea really occur?



The background of the story is found in Genesis 15:18. "In the

same day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying, Unto thy seed

have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river,

the river Euphrates."

Is this "river of Egypt" the Nile?

Some modern critics tell us "no." They claim it is, instead, a dry

river bed, which flows only in the winter, in midst of the Sinai


But the Bible plainly declares it is the River of Egypt, not the

river of the Sinai peninsula. It is not the river of the Philistines.

It is the river of Egypt!

There is only one river of Egypt -- the Nile.

God gave Abraham's descendants dominion to the river of Egypt, not

a dry river bed in the middle of the Sinai desert. His descendants --

the British and other Western Europeans -- built the Suez Canal.

The very fact that God used Israel to bulled the Suez Canal is in

itself proof that the children of Israel should possess the land of

Egypt about Suez to the Nile!

Certainly from fulfilled prophecy the river of Egypt is the Nile

-- Joshua 15:4. This Scripture tells us that the border of the land in

the south "passed toward Azmon, and went out unto the river of Egypt;

and the goings out of that coast were at the sea: this shall be your

south coast."

Also in verse 47, "Ashdod with her towns and her villages, Gaza

with her towns and her villages, unto the river of Egypt, and the great

sea, and the border thereof."

In I Kings 8:65 we find the same border: "And at that time Solomon

held a feast, and all Israel with him, a great congregation, from the

entering in of Hamath (near the Euphrates) unto the river of Egypt"

celebrated a festival.

Now we want to find out if God ever caused the children of Israel

to possess the territory east of the Nile. Was the land east of the

Nile ever possessed by the children of Israel?



Notice what the Egyptians themselves promised for the children of

Israel because of what Joseph did for them. Here is what we find in

Genesis 45:10, "And thou shalt dwell in the land of Goshen," says

Joseph to his father at Pharaoh's command, "and thou shalt be near unto

me, thou, and thy children, and thy children's children, and thy

flocks, and thy herds, and all that thou hast."

Jacob and all of the family of Israel could dwell in the land of


But -- where is the land of Goshen?

Modern scholars tell us that it is a small, semi-desolate area

east of the Nile halfway between the Nile and the Suez Canal today.

This is supposed to be the land with which God blessed Jacob in the

land of Egypt.

Because critics have assumed this is the land of Goshen, they

cannot believe that there were 600,000 Israelite men, beside women and

children, at the time the exodus occurred.

Of course in this area which the scholars tell us is the land of

Goshen, there couldn't have even been 6,000 men, beside women and

children, with all of their cattle. The fact is, scholars haven't

understood where the land of Goshen is.

Genesis 46:28 tells us more of the story. "And he (Jacob) sent

Judah before him unto Joseph, to direct his face unto Goshen." Jacob

was coming down from Beersheba in Palestine into Egypt. "And they came

into the land of Goshen. And Joseph made ready his chariot, and went up

(northward) to meet Israel his father, to Goshen, and presented himself

unto him."

Did you notice that Joseph was not in the land of Goshen? Joseph

dwelt where Pharaoh was. And Pharaoh was at Memphis, the capital of

lower Egypt. "Joseph made ready his chariot, AND WENT UP TO MEET Israel

his father." He went up to Goshen. He was going NORTH. Therefore, the

land of Goshen was NORTH of the capital of Egypt at this time.

Now verses 33 and 34 of Genesis 46: "And it shall come to pass,

when Pharaoh shall call you, and shall say, What is your occupation?"

-- Joseph instructs his father to say this -- "That ye shall say, Thy

servants' trade hath been about cattle from our youth even until now,

both we, and also our fathers; that ye may dwell in the land of Goshen;

for every shepherd is an abomination unto the Egyptians." Egyptians

often hired foreigners to tend to their cattle. So the purpose was to

have the children of Israel dwell in the land of Goshen to tend cattle


Chapter 47, verge 5 continues the story. "And Pharaoh spake unto

Joseph, saying, Thy father and thy brethren are come unto thee: The

land of Egypt is before thee; in the best of the land make thy father

and brethren to dwell; in the land of Goshen let them dwell: and if

thou knowest any men of activity among them, then make them rulers over

my cattle."

Did you notice that Pharaoh said to the children of Israel, "The

land of Egypt is before you, the best of the land, the land of Goshen."

This is the portion of Egypt that Pharaoh is actually turning over to

the children of Israel because of what Joseph did!

Remember, God told Abraham that his descendants were going to

control land to the river of Egypt -- the Nile. This is how God began

to fulfill that promise!

Now to verse 10: "And Jacob blessed Pharaoh, and went out from

before Pharaoh. And Joseph placed his father and his brethren, and gave

them a possession in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the

land of Rameses, as Pharaoh had commanded."

The best of the land, in verse 6, is called "the land of Goshen,"

while in verse 11, it is called "the land of Rameses."

Obviously, then, the land of Goshen and the land of Rameses are

the same! It is the best of all the land of Egypt.



One of the titles belonging to rulers of Egypt was "Rameses." This

title, one of several applied to the rulers of Egypt, existed from the

beginning of Egyptian history -- long before the Pharaoh "Rameses the

Great" of history, who actually began to reign in 773 (see Vol. I of

the Compendium).

Ancient Egypt was a feudalistic world. In feudalism the king

claims theoretically to own everything He leased the land out to his

princelings and lords (who lease parts of their land to others of still

lower rank), but the king reserves a certain portion for himself.

Pharaoh naturally reserved the best land for himself -- the land

of Goshen. It belonged personally to Pharaoh. So Pharaoh was not taking

land leased to his lords. He is granting this territory to Joseph, who

was next highest in the kingdom, for his service. The fee for receiving

the land of Goshen of Rameses is stated in verse 6 "And if thou knowest

any men of activity among them, then make them rulers over MY cattle."

Where were Pharaoh's cattle? In the land of Goshen, the land of

Rameses. Pharaoh knew that if Joseph could bless all Egypt as he had

done, his family would also be bound to bless his own stock. But in so

doing, the Egyptians granted the right of the children of Israel to

this territory. And by command of their ruler all the land of Goshen,

the land of Rameses, is given to the children of Israel -- as partial

fulfillment of God's promise that Abraham's seed should extend to the

river of Egypt, to the Nile.



Continuing the story with Exodus 8:22. Another dynasty has risen

up; Moses is dealing with a new Pharaoh. One of the plagues is about to

occur: "I will sever in that day," God says, "the land of Goshen, in

which my people dwell, that no swarms of flies shall be there; to the

end thou (Pharaoh) mayest know that I am the Lord in the midst of the

earth. And I will put a division between my people and thy people:

tomorrow shall this sign be."

And this sign did occur, "... the Lord did so" (verse 24). These

flies contaminated and plagued all the land of Egypt where the

Egyptians were, but the flies did not plague the land where the

children of Israel dwelt.

The land of Goshen is a particular territory where the children of

Israel were dwelling. This was the land that had once belonged to the

royal house. God makes a separation between that land and the rest of

the land of Egypt.

Verse 26, chapter 9 tells us almost the same thing: "Only in the

land of Goshen, where the children of Israel were, was there no hail."

Now to Exodus 12:29, the night of the Passover. "And it came to

pass, that at midnight the Lord smote all the firstborn in the land of

Egypt" -- this was midnight on the 14th day -- "from the firstborn of

Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that

was in the dungeon (or the prisonhouse) and all the firstborn of

cattle. And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and

there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a house where there

was not one dead. And he called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said,

Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both ye and the

children of Israel; and go, serve the Lord, as ye have said. Also take

your flocks and your herds, as ye have said, and be gone; and bless me

also. And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people, that they might

send them out of the land in haste; for they said (if they were to stay

there any longer), We be all dead men."

In verses 34 and 35 the story continues. "The children of Israel

next night -- the 15th of Abib -- having "spoiled the Egyptians" and

driven their cattle, the Israelites came to the city of Rameses.

Stop for the moment and consider these facts. God told Moses, "Go

not out of your houses until the morning."

Moses and Aaron naturally would have remained in their house this

night -- all of the night of the 14th. But Pharaoh, who was not a

firstborn son, came out of his house by night to find Moses and urge

him and all Israel to leave.

Modern critics tell us that Pharaoh at this time lived in the city

of Thebes in upper Egypt, the land of ancient Sheba. But they are all

wrong! Pharaoh's headquarters was at the city of Memphis. The ruling

dynasty in Moses' day came from Xois in the Delta, but the capital of

all lower Egypt was at Memphis. This is where the government

administration originated. It was at Memphis that Pharaoh that night

rose up and went to Moses, and said, "Get out of the land and all your

people, and he was urgent on them."

Pharaoh could not have been far from where Moses was. That very

night, he saddled his camel and went to Moses and Aaron! Wherever the

children of Israel observed the Passover was a place very near the city

of Memphis!

Remember, Israel dwelt in all the land of Goshen, but they had

assembled in one particular area to keep the Passover. From this area

they journeyed on the daylight part of the 14th of Abib to the city of

Rameses, and met there the next night, the night of the 15th!



"The children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about

six hundred thousand on foot that were men, beside children. And a

mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even

very much cattle" (Ex. 12:37-38).

From here the children of Israel left on the night of the 15th!

(Deut. 16:1).

Numbers 33:3 makes it even plainer. The children of Israel

"departed from Rameses in the first month, on the fifteenth day of the

first month; on the morrow after the passover the children of Israel

went out with an high hand in the sight of all the Egyptians."

Between the morning after the Passover and the next night, "the

children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they

borrowed of the Egyptians Jewels of silver, and Jewels of gold, and

raiment: And the Lord gave the people favour in the sight of the

Egyptians, so that they lent unto them," that is, paid them, "such

things as they required. And they spoiled the Egyptians," that is, they

took their wages that the Egyptians withheld from them for nearly two


Then they gathered at Rameses. Where was this city?

Let us read what Josephus plainly tells us. Josephus, "Antiquities

of the Jews", Book II, Chapter XV. "So the Hebrews went out of Egypt,

while the Egyptians wept, and repented that they had treated them so

hardly ... Now they took their journey by Letopolis, a place at that

time deserted, but where Babylon was built afterwards, when Cambyses

laid Egypt waste." So Rameses was the city of Letopolis, which later

under Persian rule, was called the city of Babylon. Did you know there

was also a Babylon in Egypt as well as in Mesopotamia where Nimrod

started his kingdom?

(NOTE: To view the chart placed here, see the file CMPDM2F.TIF in the

Images\OtherWCG directory.)

What city is this today? Josephus, writing in Greek, calls this

the city of Letopolis -- a Greek name for Rameses. Polis means city in

Greek. A metropolis is a "mother city." So Letopolis was the city of

Letona -- one of the names of Semiramis or Easter, the Queen of Heaven.

It is the same from which Latin has come. So this was one of the cities

dedicated anciently to the Queen of Heaven. No wonder it was also

called Babylon later!

"Smith's Classical Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography" says

of the city of Babylon in Egypt that it "is in later times called

Fostat OR OLD CAIRO, a fortress in lower Egypt on the right bank of the

Nile exactly opposite to the pyramids of Giza, and at the beginning of

the canal which connected the Nile with the Red Sea.

The city of Rameses, built by the children of Israel in honor of

the Pharaoh, was Letopolis, the very city which today the Mohammedans

call Old Cairo!

Notice the accompanying map. God gave the children of Israel the

land all the way to the Nile River. The land east of the Nile toward

Palestine was the land of Goshen. That's where the cattle of Israel

were grazing.

The capital city of lower Egypt was Memphis. That is where Pharaoh

had his court.

The children of Israel, when they assembled in Rameses, were

assembling at Old Cairo. Since they reached Rameses or Old Cairo on the

night after the Passover, they must have assembled for the Passover a

little to the south of Old Cairo -- near Memphis, Pharaoh's capital.

Memphis is on the west side of the Nile. Old Cairo is a little farther

north on the east of the Nile River. Old Cairo is but a suburb of

modern Cairo today. It is just an old section of town. Most visitors

are not even permitted today to see Old Cairo because it is such a

ramshackle place -- though it is not as deserted today as the children

of Israel found it then. That is why they met there -- because there

weren't Egyptians living in that area.

Many Bible maps cannot be relied upon. They disagree with each

other and with the Bible. The producers of these maps do not use the

Bible as evidence, but their human theories instead!

Josephus at least should know as much as the scholars today. And

when you put his evidence with the Bible, it's very clear that it had

to be near the city of Memphis where they kept the Passover! As the

congregation of Israel were leaving northward they gathered at the city

of Rameses, which Josephus calls Letopolls -- Babylon or Old Cairo in




Israel naturally had their headquarters near Memphis because at

Memphis, the Egyptian orders were issued. That is the region where the

pyramids were built.

Interestingly enough, as we go through the account of Josephus we

find the following surprising facts. Josephus tells us in his

"Antiquities of the Jews" (Book II. Chapter IX) that the children of

Israel "were forced to channel (make channels for the river), to build

walls for the Egyptians and make cities and ramparts .... they set them

also to build pyramids (after the pattern of the Great Pyramid), and by

all this wore them out ..."

The majority of the pyramids start from Old Cairo and go south,

not north. The children of Israel must have labored in the area

centered at the region of Old Cairo and on south throughout the

heart-land of Egypt.

Notice a plain statement in the "Imperial Bible Dictionary"

(published in England, Volume 5, subject, "Rameses"): "Immediately

south of this region of Old Cairo there is an area where there were

ancient quarries in a rocky mountain, from which much of the material

for the pyramids was procured, and in which the poor Jews are said by

Manetho (an Egyptian historian) to have worked."

This confirms what Josephus tells us in his work entitled "Apion",

Book I, Chapter 26. Near these quarries on the east of the Nile

opposite Memphis is an area called "Mera-vad-Musa, or the 'Habitation

(or dwelling) of Moses.' " Moses was the leader and as he communicated

back and forth with Pharaoh it is logical that opposite Memphis, where

many of the lesser pyramids were built, Moses should have his

headquarters -- to this day bearing the name, "the Habitation of


Now continuing with the "Imperial Bible Dictionary": "From thence

(that is, Mera-vad-Musa or the "Habitation of Moses") they moved

northward, passing, as Josephus says, by ancient Babylon or Old Cairo,

and then by or over the city of modern Cairo, proceeding along the

direct route to the land of Canaan, as far as Succoth, or Berket el

Hadj, the 'Pool of the Pilgrims' ..." "Succoth" merely means booths

-- or an encampment. It was there Moslem pilgrims, to this day, can go

from Egypt over to Mecca, the holy city of the Mohammedan religion.

It is on the way that led out of Egypt to the wilderness of the

Red Sea.

But let us go on to Numbers 33 and read the rest of the account.

"And they departed from Rameses (Old Cairo) in the first month, on the

fifteenth day of the first month ... and went out with a high hand in

the sight of all the Egyptians. For the Egyptians buried all their

firstborn, which the Lord had smitten among them: upon their gods also

the Lord executed judgments. And the children of Israel removed from

Rameses, and pitched in Succoth.

"And they departed from Succoth, and pitched in Etham, which is in

the edge of the wilderness. And they removed from Etham, and turned

again (literally turned back) unto Pihahiroth, which is before

Baalzephon: and they pitched before Migdol. And they departed from

before Pihahiroth, and passed through the midst of the sea into the

wilderness, and went three days' journey in the wilderness of Etham,

and pitched in Marah."

The miracle of the Red Sea! Did it really happen?



Now let us pick up the story with Exodus 13:17: "And it came to

pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go, that God led them not through

the way of the land of the Philistines." Here we have the first of

several highways named.

In ancient Egypt there were major roads which went out of Egypt.

One was "the way of the Red Sea" which was southeast from the Delta.

Another was "the way of Etham," or "the wilderness of Shur" which went

from Egypt through Beersheba. It was the road by which Jacob came down

into Egypt. The third is "the way of the land of the Philistines" which

went up from the coast through Gaza by the Mediterranean. See the

accompanying map.

As Israel was proceeding north through Old Cairo, they could have

easily taken the way, or the highway of the Philistines -- the

Philistine highway.

Many assume that this road must have been by the Mediterranean.

They are wrong! The way of the land of the Philistines extended far

into Egypt.

While the Israelites were still in Egypt, they could have traveled

by the road that led northward to the land of the Philistines. But,

instead of taking that, near as it was, God said, "Lest peradventure

the people repent when they see war, and return to Egypt," God led the

people about through the way of the wilderness of the Red Sea.

This is another road. This is the most southerly of the three

major roads in Egypt. Instead of taking the northerly route which would

have taken them through the land of the Philistines, or the middle

route in an easterly direction through Beersheba, they took the road

leading southeast into Sinai and Arabia. God led them, not straight

north, but through the way of the Red Sea.

This is the common road that even to this day the Moslem pilgrims

take to the holy city of Mecca in Arabia. It is a road that has been

used from the very beginning of time when human beings have dwelt in

the land of Egypt.

Continuing: "And the children of Israel went up harnessed (or, in

ranks of five) out of the land of Egypt" marching up the road. "And

Moses took the bones of Joseph (perhaps from the Great Pyramid just

west of Old Cairo?) with him: for he had straightly sworn the children

of Israel, saying, God will surely visit you; and ye shall carry up my

bones away hence with you. And they took their journey from Succoth,"

the first stopping point on this road which went toward the Red Sea.

And from there, they took their journey "and encamped in Etham, in the

edge of the wilderness (of Sinai)."

At this point, they could have gone straight out of Egypt into

Sinai, and Pharaoh never could have caught them! All they had to do was

to follow the road just as the Arabs do today -- out of Egypt through

the Sinai peninsula down through Arabia to Mecca.

Here they were at the border of Egypt, just north of the Red Sea,

not by the Mediterranean. What happened next?

Now "the Lord went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, to

lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them

light; to go by day and night" (Ex. 13:21). It took them the seven days

of Unleavened Bread to leave Egypt altogether.

God "took not away the pillar of the cloud by day, nor the pillar

of fire by night, from before the people" (verse 22). "And the Lord

spake unto Moses (Ex. 14:1-2), saying, Speak unto the children of

Israel, that they turn (don't continue, but turn sharply to the right)

and encamp before Pihahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, over against

Baalzephon: before it shall ye encamp by the sea." They now camp by the




The "Imperial Bible Dictionary" tells us again.

"Pihahiroth, therefore, must have been the name of some natural

locality, such as a mountain, or a range of mountains, a cliff,

precipice, cape or promontory. It is said of the children of Israel,

when (they were) overtaken by Pharaoh at the Red Sea, that they were

entangled in the land, being shut in by the 'wilderness' or mountains

(Ex. 14:3)."

Israel could not have gone farther in its line of march. Pharaoh

had them bottled up in front of the Pihahiroth range of mountains! Did

God make a mistake in leading them by the hand of Moses?

Israel ended up on an area at the upper portion of the Red Sea by

the Gulf of Suez where there is a huge mountain range that comes right

down to the sea. When they got into this area, it was like entering a

bag. They could not go any farther by land. The only place they could

go was out into the water because the mountain range comes right down

to the seashore.

Opposite Pihahiroth was Baalzephon. This must have been a city

where Baal was worshipped. Zephon means "the north." This was "Baal of

the North" -- the Baal that comes down from the north pole, clad in red

and white every December 25! This was the ancient seat of Santa Claus


They also camped near Migdol. Where was it?

Trumbull, in his book called "Kadesh-Barnea", page 377, reveals

something about the city of Migdol: "A short distance to the northwest

of Suez ... there is a station, or a pass, known as El Maktal" -- the

Migdol. "It is directly on the line of the Hajj, route." The Hajj is a

modern Arabic term for "the way of the Red Sea." The modern El Maktal

is "near the track noted ... as the 'Way of the Bed'ween into Ancient

Egypt.' " "Wilkinson judged 'from its name and position,' that this

represents 'the Migdol of the Bible.' "

As they encamped before Pihahiroth, which is a mountain range, and

Baalzephon, then Baalzephon was on the north, and Pihahiroth was the

mountain range on the south. Then between Migdol, in the west, and the

Red Sea, in the east, there is an area large enough for the children of

Israel to be bottled up.

The Red Sea is nearly 8 miles across here! There is a very

extensive area -- many thousands of feet wide -- which could have

opened up for the children of Israel to cross.



Let's continue with Exodus 14:3: "For Pharaoh will say of the children

of Israel, They are entangled in the land, the wilderness hath shut

them in." And God hardened Pharaoh's heart, "And he took six hundred

chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt, and captains over every

one of them. And the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt,

and he pursued after the children of Israel." Pharaoh overtook them

camping by the Red Sea on what probably was the sixth day of Unleavened


The Israelites were now frightened. They said in verse 12, "Let us

alone, that we may serve the Egyptians. For it had been better for us

to serve the Egyptians, than that we should die in the wildernese. And

Moses said unto the people, Fear ye not, stand still, and see the

salvation of the Lord, which he will shew to you to day: for the

Egyptians whom ye have seen to day, ye shall see them again no more for

ever. The Lord shall fight for you, and ye shall hold your peace. And

the Lord said unto Moses, Wherefore criest thou unto me? speak unto the

children of Israel, that they go forward" -- into the water? No!

Notice: "But lift thou up thy rod, and stretch out thine hand over

the sea, and divide it: and the children of Israel shall go on dry

ground through the midst of the sea."

The miracle was wrought when Moses stretched his rod forth. The

sea parted thousands of feet wide! Then the winds came in to drive back

the waters and to build them up as a wall on either side!

Now verse 21: "Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the

Lord caused the sea to go back." It was a miracle! Contrary to seasonal

weather a strong wind blew "all that night, and made the sea dry land,

and the waters were divided. And the children of Israel went into the

midst of the sea upon the dry ground: and the waters were a wall unto

them on their right hand, and on their left. And the Egyptians pursued,

and went in after them to the midst of the sea, even all Pharaoh's

horses, his charlots, and his horsemen. And it came to pass, that in

the morning watch the Lord looked unto the host of the Egyptians

through the pillar of fire and of the cloud, and troubled the host of

the Egyptians, And took off their chariot wheels, that they drove them

heavily: so that the Egyptians said, Let us flee from the face of

Israel; for the Lord fighteth for them against the Egyptians. And the

Lord said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the sea, that the

waters may come again upon the Egyptians, upon their charlots, and upon

their horsemen. And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and

the sea returned to his strength when the morning appeared; and the

Egyptians fled against it."

Here was an area wide enough for 600 chosen chariots of the

Egyptians to race through, beside a great many troops in order to

capture the nearly 2,000,000 Israelite men, women and children. Verse

28, the waters "returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen,

and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them; there

remained not so much as one of them. But the children of Israel walked

upon dry land in the midst of the sea ... Thus the Lord saved Israel

that day out of the hand of the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians

dead upon the sea shore. And Israel saw that great work which the Lord

did upon the Egyptians: and the people feared the Lord, and believed

the Lord, and his servant Moses."



Pharaoh was dead. His army was slain. There was not one left.

There was not even a solitary messenger to tell the Egyptians what

happened (Ps. 106:11).

Read Exodus 15:4: "Pharaoh's chariots and his host hath he cast

into the sea: his chosen captains also are drowned in the Red Sea. The

depths have covered them: they sank into the bottom as a stone. Thy

right hand, O Lord, is become glorious in power: thy right hand, O

Lord, hath dashed in pieces the enemy."

God won the battle for the children of Israel. They were delivered

out of the land of Egypt. They now rested on the peaceful shores of

Sinai, where even today such names as "Ayn Musa" and "Ras Musa" testify

to the Exodus. (See the map.) Not one of the Israelites perished, but

all the Egyptians who pursued were overthrown.

Josephus adds some vivid details to the same story! "The number

that pursued after them was six hundred chariots, with fifty thousand

horsemen, and two hundred thousand footmen, all armed. They also seized

on the passages by which they imagined the Hebrews might fly, shutting

them up between inaccessible precipices and the sea; for there was ...

a (ridge of) mountains that terminated at the sea, which were

impassable by reason of their roughness, and obstructed their flight;

wherefore they there pressed upon the Hebrews with their army"

("Antiquities of the Jews", Josephus, Book III, ch. xv, sec. 3).

A few verses in Psalm 77 are worth reading at this point. "I will

remember the works of the Lord: surely I will remember thy wonders of

old. I will meditate also of all thy work, and talk of thy doings"

(verse 11). What were God's doings?

We find them in verse 16: "The waters saw thee, O God, the waters

saw thee; they were afraid: the depths also were troubled. The clouds

poured out water: the skies sent out a sound: thine arrows also went

abroad. The voice of thy thunder was in the heaven: the lightnings

lightened the world: the earth trembled and shook. Thy way is in the

sea, and thy path in the great waters, and thy footsteps are not known.

Thou leddest thy people like a flock by the hand of Moses and Aaron."

Thunder and rain and great lightning shook the land that night. In

early morning the waters just poured in on Pharaoh as his chariot

became stuck in the mud at the bottom of the sea -- and he is there to

this day!

Psalm 78 also tells us a little about it. Verse 12: "Marvellous

things did he in the sight of their fathers, in the land of Egypt, in

the field of Zoan." The word "field" here is properly translated

elsewhere as "country" or "kingdom."

The "land of Egypt" is "the field," or "the country," or "the

kingdom of Zoan." Zoan gave its name to Egypt because it was the

earliest city built in Egypt (Numbers 13:22 says that it was built 7

years after Hebron and was apparently the first city built in

post-flood Egypt).

The country of Egypt was named after Zoan just as Israel was often

named after Samaria, or Judah was named after Jerusalem.

The miracles that God wrought were in the land of Egypt -- in the

land of Zoan. They mean the same thing! These miracles did not occur in

some obscure field outside the city of Zoan near the Mediterranean!



That is the story of the miracle of the Red Sea. And it is

corroborated from the Egyptians' own record of history!

From the Exodus forward, Egypt was for almost four centuries

overrun by Amalekites (or Hyksos, the Egyptian word for "shepherds")

and punished for having enslaved the Israelites. Even as late as the

days of Saul and David the Amalekites dominated Egypt.

In I Samuel 30 David meets an Egyptian slave led by his Amalekite

master to die in the wilderness. "And David said to him, To whom

belongest thou? and whence art thou? And he said, I am a young man of

Egypt, servant to an Amalekite; and my master left me ..." (verse


The ancient Egyptian historian Manetho admits all this: "There was

a king of ours whose name was Timaus (a petty dynast) at the time of

the Exodus. Under him it came to pass, I know not how, that God was

averse to us, and there came after a surprising manner, men of ignoble

birth out of the eastern parts (the Amalekites), and had boldness

enough to make an expedition into our country, and with ease subdued it

by force, yet without our hazarding a battle with them ..." ("Against

Apion" by Josephus, Book I, Part 14).

So the historical record of Egypt, when rightly understood,

confirms the Bible. There was neither Pharaoh nor army left to defend

the country! They disappeared in the Red Sea without leaving a trace.

Not until the days of King Saul did Egypt recover her former power.

The miracle of the Red Sea did happen! The Bible is true!




Why should the valley through Petra be named after Moses -- if

Moses was never there? Could it be that Moses and the children of

Israel actually assembled in Petra before entering the Promised Land?

Why are so many chapters in the Bible devoted to the minute

details of the journey of Israel from Egypt to Palestine? Have these

chapters hitherto undisclosed historical meaning?



Today, almost no one supposes Israel ever saw Petra. Yet not more

than two centuries ago it was common knowledge among scholars that

Moses, Aaron, Miriam and the children of Israel journeyed through


Now notice what really happened when Israel was about to leave

Mount Sinai. It is found in Numbers 10:11-12. "And it came to pass on

the twentieth day of the second month, in the second year (after the

Exodus), that the cloud was taken up from off the tabernacle .... And

the children took their journeys" -- the original Hebrew reads "set

forward by stages" (Jewish translation) -- "out of the wilderness of

Sinai; and the cloud rested in the wilderness of Paran."

From Numbers 9:15 to 23, we learn that the encampments of Israel

were determined by the movement of the cloud above the tabernacle. When

the cloud was stationary, the people abode in their tents. When the

cloud ascended and moved forward, the people followed it. The Eternal

-- the God of Israel, who later came in the flesh as Christ -- was in

that cloud! He was leading Israel. He determined their movements. Where

did He take them? To "the wilderness of Paran," says Numbers 10:12.

But where is Paran?

Men assume it may mean the Sinai Peninsula, southwest of

Palestine. They are only guessing! They don't really know! Where does

the Bible say it is?

First, let's understand what the word "Paran" means. "Young's

Concordance" gives the surprising definition: "Full of caverns." Paran

comes from the Hebrew root meaning "to dig out," or "to cut out,"

according to the "Encyclopaedia Biblica"; hence, "to embellish or

decorate" ("Strong's Concordance").

Here is a wilderness famous for a place in it which is full of

caverns or caves! -- embellished or decorated with tombs! Is this place

Petra? We shall see. Certainly no city is more famous for its

beautifully carved caves than Petra!

Notice also that Ishmael -- the ancestor of the Arabians -- "dwelt

in the wilderness of Paran" (Genesis 21:21). It does not say he dwelt

in Sinai. The scripture reads Paran. And where is the ancestral home of

the Arabs? In Arabia, east of the Sinai Peninsula! That indicates that

the wilderness of Paran borders on Arabia!

Now turn to Numbers 12:16. Note what it says -- the children of

Israel pitched their tents "in the wilderness of Paran." From here

Moses sent the twelve men to spy out the land of Palestine. "And Moses

sent them from the wilderness of Paran according to the commandment of

the Lord" (Numbers 13:3).

After forty days "they came to Moses, and to Aaron, and to all the

congregation of the children of Israel, unto the wilderness of Paran,

to Kadesh" (Numbers 13:26). Kadesh is a city (Numbers 20:16).



Why was this city called "Kadesh"? In Hebrew, the word Kadesh

means "holy." (See "Young's Concordance".) What made the place holy?

God did! God is holy. God dwelled in the cloud over the tabernacle. The

cloud abode in the wilderness of Paran in Kadesh. God's presence

sanctified the city and gave the name Kadesh to it.

Kadesh has more than one name. In the book of Numbers, God

commanded Israel to go up and possess the land, beginning from "Kadesh"

(Numbers 13:26). But in Deuteronomy 9:23 we read: "Likewise when the

Lord sent you from Kadesh-barnea, saying, 'Go up and possess the land

which I have given you'; then ye rebelled ...." Kadesh-barnea is

therefore another name for Kadesh.

Why should the city of Kadesh also be called "Kadesh-barnea"? The

Hebrew word "barnea" comes from two Hebrew words, "bar" and "nua". The

root meaning of "nua" (sometimes spelled "nuwa") is "to waver or

wander." It is often translated in the Old Testament as "wanderer,"

"vagabond," "fugitive." "Bar" means "son." It is used in such

expressions as Bartimaeus, meaning "the son of Timaeus" (Mark 10:46),

"Simon Bar-Jona" -- Simon the son of Jona (Matthew 16:17).

It was at Kadesh (Numbers 13:26) that the Israelites wavered in

their faith. They refused to trust God (Numbers 14:1, 11). As a

punishment they had to wander or be fugitives in the wilderness. "And

the Lord's anger was kindled against Israel, and he made them wander in

the wilderness forty years, until all the generation that had done evil

in the sight of the Lord was consumed" (Numbers 32:13).

Kadesh was never referred to as Kadesh-barnea until after the

Israelites wavered in their faith and had to wander as a punishment

(Numbers 32:8). The significance of the name barnea, then, is "the

wandering sons."

Observe, now, in what mountain range Kadesh is to be found.



"And we journeyed from Horeb, and went through all that great and

dreadful wilderness which ye saw, by the way to the hill country of the

Amorites, as the Lord our God commanded us: and we came to

Kadesh-barnea" (Deuteronomy 1:19).

The "hill country of the Amorites" is defined by Moffatt in Judges

1:36 as extending "from the Scorpion Pass ("Akrabbim" in King James

Version) to Sela and beyond it." Sela is Petra!

Consider another vital point. To reach Kadesh from Horeb or Sinai

(Horeb is another name for Sinai -- Malachi 4:4 and Deuteronomy

4:10-13), the usual eleven-day route went "by the way of Mount Seir"!

Or, in other words, Israel journeyed by the Mount Seir road! But where

is Mount Seir?

Mount Seir is that chain of mountains between Arabia and the

Arabah or "plain" mentioned so often in the Bible. It lies east of the

Arabah and extends from the Gulf of Aqaba north to near the Dead Sea.

Most maps in the back of a Bible will have these places located

correctly. These maps, however, misplace Kadesh. The "Kadesh" usually

located in the Sinai Peninsula is not the city Moses describes, but is

the "Kedesh" of Joshua 15:23 instead -- another place altogether.

Now consider this: if the wilderness of Paran and Kadesh were in

the Sinai Peninsula southwest of Palestine, there would be no reason

for traveling by the way of Mount Seir!

The only reason one would have to travel by the Way of Mount Seir

-- or by the Mount Seir Road -- is that Paran and Kadesh lay east of

the Sinai Peninsula -- in other words, in the vicinity of Petra!

Take another scripture -- Deuteronomy 1:6-7: "The Lord our God

spoke unto us in Horeb, saying: 'Ye have dwelt long enough in this

mountain; turn you, and take your journey, and go to the hill-country

of the Amorites and unto all the places nigh thereunto, in the Arabah

(in the King James Version it is called "the plain"), in the

hill-country, in the Lowland, and in the South, and by the sea-shore of

the Canaanites, and Lebanon, as far as the great river, the river

Euphrates' " (Jewish translation).

Did you notice that? Israel was to journey to the Amorite

hill-country, where Kadesh was located. From there they were to enter

the promised land from the east, to proceed westward to the shore of

the Mediterranean, and then go north to Lebanon and the Euphrates

(verse 21). The first part of the promised land they would enter was

the Arabah -- the wilderness just west of Petra in Mount Seir!

Here is just one more proof that Kadesh and the wilderness of

Paran were east of the Arabah -- east of the Sinai Peninsula -- in

Mount Seir, in the vicinity of Petra!



But this is not all the evidence. Notice! When Israel refused to

trust God, He sternly told them: "Surely they shall not see the land

which I sware unto their fathers, neither shall any of them see it"

(Numbers 14:23). Upon receiving this rebuke, they imperiously said:

"Lo, we be here, and will go up unto the place which the Lord hath

promised: for we have sinned. And Moses said, Wherefore now do ye

transgress the commandment of the Lord .... Go not up, for the Lord is

not among you; that ye be not smitten before your enemies .... But they

presumed to go up unto the hill top: ... Then the Amalekites came down,

and the Canaanites which dwelt in that hill, and smote them, and

discomfited them, even unto Hormah" (Numbers 14:40-45).

Notice where this disaster befell Israel. The people were defeated

even to Hormah. Where is Hormah?

"And the Amorites" -- who were Canaanites -- "came out against

you, as bees do, and destroyed you in Seir, even unto Hormah"!

(Deuteronomy 1:42-45.)

It was in Seir -- in the mountain range where Petra is located --

that Israel was handed this severe defeat. This was not somewhere in

the Sinai wilderness. This was in Seir. The Bible says so!



Kadesh is also said to be located in "the Wilderness of Zin." "For

ye rebelled," God told Moses, "against my commandment in the desert of

Zin, in the strife of the congregation, to sanctify me at the water

before their eyes: that is the water of Meribah in Kadesh in the

wilderness of Zin" (Numbers 27:14).

Since Kadesh is located in the wilderness of Paran and in the

wilderness or Zin, it certainly appears that Zin and Paran are two

different names for the same wilderness, doesn't it? What does "Zin"

mean? Here is the answer!

The spies began to search the promised land from the city of

Kadesh-barnea. That is recorded in Deuteronomy 1:19-23. Kadesh was

their starting point. It was an important city on the border of the

promised land. It was in fact one of the promised "gates of your

enemies" (Genesis 22:17). But according to Numbers 13:21, we discover

that "they went up, and searched the land from the wilderness of Zin


The Wilderness of Zin is mentioned no less than ten times in the

Bible. Invariably the only city associated with it is Kadesh. Kadesh is

also the only city associated with Paran. Remember that Paran means

"caverns." But what does Zin mean?

It comes from the Hebrew root meaning a mountainous crag, as if

piercing the sky! (See "Strong's Concordance".) Here is what the

"Encyclopaedia Biblica" says: Zin "may mean the 'wall' of rock within

which the wilderness of Zin lies"!

What better description could we find for the region of Petra than

this! Petra is famous for its stupendous crags jutting high into the

sky. Is it a coincidence that Petra -- with its rocky crags and its

caves -- is the only city in the region of Arabia from which the words

Paran and Zin can both be derived?

Some have been confused between the "Wilderness of Zin" and the

"Wilderness of Sin." They are not the same. They are spelled

differently in Hebrew. The Wilderness of Sin was reached by Israel

before they even came to Sinai (Exodus 16:1). The wilderness of Zin was

reached after Israel departed from Sinai. Sin was northwest of Sinai.

Zin was far to the northeast of Mount Sinai.



The epoch-making night following the return of the twelve spies,

"all the congregation lifted up their voice, and cried; and the people

wept" (Numbers 14:1). Their anger rose to rebellion next day. They

hurled the accusation "Would God we had died in this wilderness" (verse


When God heard it, He ordered Moses to tell the people: "Tomorrow

turn you, and get you into the wilderness by the way of the Red sea"

(verse 25, last half).

Remember, Israel was already in the wilderness of Zin or Paran.

Now God orders them to leave Kadesh and go into the wilderness by the

Way of the Red Sea -- that is, by the Red Sea Road. They reached Kadesh

by the Mount Seir Road. Now they are to leave by another route for an

area called "the wilderness."

After their crushing defeat that morning at Hormah, Moses

reported: "And ye returned and wept before the Lord; but the Lord would

not hearken to your voice, nor give ear unto you. So you abode in

Kadesh many days" -- how long? "According unto the days (the forty days

of anxious waiting for the spies' return) that you abode there"

(Deuteronomy 1:45-46).

God would not let them remain in Kadesh any longer. He was

determined that they were to leave that day for the wilderness, rather

than enter Palestine. They did not deserve the promised land. They

despised it. The many days of waiting, in which they dwelled in Kadesh,

comprised over forty long days. When the spies returned, they rebelled.

Thus, instead of entering the land of Canaan, Moses wrote: "Then we

turned, and took our journey into the wilderness by the way of the Red

sea, as the Lord spake unto me" (Deuteronomy 2:1).

The children of Israel now move southwest from Kadesh. They take

the road that leads to the Red Sea in order to journey into the

wilderness. This is the wilderness which they had asked to die in

(Numbers 14:2) -- and in it they were going to die! Moses called it

"that great and dreadful wilderness" -- the edge of which they passed

through when journeying from Sinai to Mount Seir (Deuteronomy 1:19).

This wilderness in the Sinai Peninsula has been called throughout

history simply Et Tih -- meaning "the Wilderness"; or Badiyat et-Tih

Beni Israel -- meaning "the Wilderness of the Wanderings of the

Children of Israel." This designation runs back in the Arabian

historians as far back as we have any track of their name for this

desert," says Trumbull, on page 67 of "Kadesh-barnea".

Nowhere in all the Bible is this area ever called Zin or Paran! It

is entirely mislabeled on most Bible maps today. Nearly thirty-seven

and one-half years were spent wandering in this desolate, arid region.

No notice is taken of any wilderness encampments during those years.

Only a few major events occurring during the period are recorded in

Numbers 15 through 19.



Before we proceed further, let's consider Numbers 33. This entire

chapter is devoted to the encampments of the children of Israel. This

list of seemingly unimportant encampments may have far more importance

for us today than we dream! Everything is placed in the Bible for a


Turn now to Numbers 33. Beginning with verse 1: "These are the

journeys of the children of Israel .... And Moses wrote their goings

out according to their journeys by the commandment of the Lord." Then

Moses lists the stopovers to Sinai (verse 15).

We have read in Deuteronomy 1:2 that the trip could be made from

Sinai to Kadesh in eleven days of normal travel. The Israelites took

longer, of course. Sometimes they remained a week (Numbers 12:15) or a